New York State Chemistry RegentsNew York State Earth Science Regents

 
Laboratory Skills: Scientific Inquiry & Technique
Living Environment Regents June 2010 Question 31 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 26 May 2011 15:59
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Correct answer: (3) 200 µm

Based on the diagram, the 1mm (which is equivalent to 1000µm) field of view contains approximately 5 cells. Thus, to get the average size of each cell in µm, we divide 1000µm with 5, and this is equal to 200µm.

Incorrect answers:

(1) 10 µm

If the size of each cell is only 10µm, then there must be 100 cells (1000µm divided by 10µm) in the field of view of the microscope instead of only 5 cells.

(2) 100 µm

If the size of each cell is only 100µm, then there must be 10 cells (1000µm divided by 100µm) in the field of view of the microscope instead of only 5 cells.

(4) 2000 µm

If the size of each cell is 2000µm, then only half of a cell must be seen in the field of view of the microscope.
 
Living Environment Regents June 2010 Question 33 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 26 May 2011 16:09
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Correct answer: (4) test a third group that does not receive the supplement

For experiments like this, it is important to have a control setup, wherein a variable must remain unchanged or held constant to prevent its effects on the outcome and thus verifies the behavior of and the relationship between independent and dependent variables. In this particular experiment, it could have been easier to measure the efficacy of the mineral supplement if a control setup was present by simply comparing the health conditions of the control and those that took up mineral supplements in two different dosages.

Incorrect answers:

(1) test only one group with 200mg of the supplement

Control setups are important to test the validity of the results. Thus, only one setup will leave the researchers with no point of comparison with other factors that could have affected the results of the experiment.

(2) test the supplement on both groups for 5 weeks instead of 10 weeks

Decreasing the time period of the experiment to 5 weeks could lead to invalid results because the time frame is too short.

(3) test a third group that receives 150mg of the supplement

This is irrelevant because both 100mg and 200mg produced the same results.
 
Living Environment Regents June 2010 Question 40 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 26 May 2011 16:22
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Correct answer: (2) slows the growth of the fetus

The controlled variable in this study is the nonsmoker wife that carries the baby. In the two setups, both mothers do not smoke. As seen in the results, babies with fathers that smoke have significantly lower body weights compared with those that were not exposed to smoking. Thus, secondhand smoking could be a major factor in the low body weight of the babies.

Incorrect answers:

(1) is unable to pass from the mother to the fetus

It is very likely that the mother can pass the smoke she inhaled from the outside environment to the fetus because the fetus' intake of oxygen depends solely on the mother.

(3) causes mutation in cells of the ovaries

Smoke cannot cause mutation of cells in the ovaries because the cells are not directly exposed to smoke. Mutation is often caused by direct exposure to radiation or toxic chemicals.

(4) blocks the receptors on antibody cells

Smoke cannot block receptors on antibody because they are not directly exposed to smoke.

 
Living Environment Regents June 2010 Question 44 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 26 May 2011 16:45
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Based on the percentage abundance of gases listed, carbon dioxide is the most abundant component, comprising 99.438% of the greenhouse gases. Other gases, such as methane and nitrous oxide, only contribute less than 1% in the greenhouse gases. Combustion of fossil fuels, burning of large quantities of wood, removal of trees by deforestation, and increased productivity by vegetation are some of the causes of increase in carbon dioxide levels.
 
Living Environment Regents June 2010 Question 45 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 26 May 2011 16:46
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These living organisms could carry diseases that could harm other organisms in the United States. They are also preventing the introduction of exotic species because these species may compete with the resources of the existing species.
 
Living Environment Regents June 2010 Question 46 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 26 May 2011 16:49
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Correct answer:

image046b-answer
Last Updated on Thursday, 26 May 2011 16:55
 
Living Environment Regents June 2010 Question 47 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 26 May 2011 16:52
image047a

Correct answer:

image047b-answer

Last Updated on Thursday, 26 May 2011 16:56
 
Living Environment Regents June 2010 Question 48 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 26 May 2011 16:56
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The habitat of the birds is not a factor in the collision because according to the passage, the birds collide with the aircraft whether they are in the air or on the ground. In addition, about 50% of collisions occur in the airport environment, which means that it also occurs in areas outside of airport grounds.
 
Living Environment Regents June 2010 Question 49 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 26 May 2011 16:57
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The highest number of collisions was recorded during August to September, which nears fall season. The birds migrate in groups during this time to transfer to a place where they can stay during the winter season, which is characterized by low temperature and bare trees. Thus, the birds which inhabit trees must look for a warmer place before winter comes.
Last Updated on Thursday, 26 May 2011 16:59
 
Living Environment Regents June 2010 Question 50 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 26 May 2011 16:59
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Stomata (stoma, singular) are microscopic pores with guard cells found on the surface of stems and leaves of plants. These structures allow the exchange of gases between the environment and the interior of the plant. It also regulates the rate of transpiration by controlling the size of stomata opening, which also prevents dehydration and wilting. The stomata also contribute in maintaining the temperature of the plant as water evaporates.
 
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