New York State Chemistry RegentsNew York State Earth Science Regents

 
NYS Living Environment Regents August 2010
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 61 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 27 May 2011 17:48
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These animals are capable of bioluminescence, which is the emission of light through the transformation of chemical energy into light energy with the help of the enzyme luciferase. Marine organisms can use light in predation. For instance, the carnivorous fish known as the deep-sea angler has luminous bait sprouting from the middle of the head and suspended near its mouth to attract prey. On the other hand, there are also other bioluminescent organisms that emit light which they use for courtship and mating, like some marine crustaceans.
 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 62 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 27 May 2011 17:56
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Animals in the abyssal zone cannot survive the upper ocean zones due to the difference in water pressure. Their bodies are not be able to tolerate the low pressure of the upper ocean zones. Some deep-sea animals have collapsed lungs to make their body heavier than water, which makes sinking deeper easier. Some fishes located in the abyssal zone have developed lung-like swim bladders to manage their buoyancy. When they move up the water column, they secrete gas into the bladder by inflating it (What is "it'?). They move down by reabsorbing gas into their blood. The bladder does not collapse at depth because the pressure of the gas inside the bladder is equal to the pressure outside it. Thus, when the external pressure suddenly drops, the bladder will swell terribly.


 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 63 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 27 May 2011 17:59
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This procedure is called gel electrophoresis. It is used to separate DNA fragments. Through an electric current, the molecules of various sizes move through the porous sponge-like gel. The small molecules move through the gel faster than the bigger ones.
 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 64 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 27 May 2011 18:01
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Correct answer: (2) smallest fragment of DNA that traveled the fastest

Band X, which is the band farthest from the wells, represents the smallest fragment that passed through the sponge-like matrix of the gel. It is easier for the smaller molecules to move through the pores of the gel because of their sizes.

Incorrect answers:

(1) largest fragment of DNA that traveled the fastest

It will take a longer time for the largest molecules to travel through the gel because of their sizes.

(3) largest fragment of the DNA that traveled the slowest

Though it is true that the larger fragments move the slowest, it is not true that Band X represents the largest fragment. If the large fragment moves slowly, then it would be the nearest band from the well where the DNA sample was placed.

(4) smallest fragment of DNA that traveled the slowest

The smallest fragment will be the fastest to travel because of its small size, which allows them to easily pass through the pores of the gel.
 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 65 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 27 May 2011 18:08
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Children B and D have similar DNA profiles. All the bands are located at the same sites, meaning the smallest fragments of both samples have the same molecular sizes. This goes the same with the other bands.

 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 66 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 27 May 2011 18:10
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Gel electrophoresis is used in genetic fingerprinting, specifically in parental testing, forensic science, and the genetic diagnosis of evolutionary relationships. For example, DNA profiles of organisms can be compared to analyze possible evolutionary relationships. Those with similar DNA profiles could be closely related.
 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 67 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 27 May 2011 18:11
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Correct answer: (1) paper chromatography

Paper chromatography is a laboratory technique used to separate substances with different rates of migration across a sheet of paper. The paper is initially placed in a particular solvent to create a stationary liquid phase. Then the test solution is dropped near the edge of the paper (indicated in the illustration as the original spot). Then the tip is dipped in another solvent to allow the movement of the components of the test solution based on the sizes of the molecules and their solubility in the solvent.

Incorrect answers:

(2) gene manipulation

Gene manipulation, also known as genetic engineering, is a process that involves the use of various laboratory tools and enzymes to cut out, insert, and alter pieces of the DNA that contain one of more genes of interest.

(3) dissection

Dissection is a process usually used in anatomy, wherein the external parts are disassembled, by cutting or slicing, to analyze the structure and function of the internal body parts of an organism.

(4) staining

Staining refers to the laboratory technique that uses stains or dyes to adjust the contrast of samples to be viewed through laboratory equipment, such as the microscope. This can be used for better viewing of the various parts and components of the samples under the microscope. It can also be used to determine if a specific type of molecule is present in a sample. For example, iodine is used to determine the presence of starch in a sample, indicated by the dark blue coloration.
 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 68 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 27 May 2011 18:13
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Correct answer: (3) control group

In the experiment, all the participants listened to music. The researcher should have added another group to serve as the control. The control group will not listen to the different types of music, but their pulse rates will be recorded every 30 seconds. If the pulse rates of the control group and the experimental group (persons that listened to the music) are different, then the conclusion is valid.

Incorrect answers:

(1) prediction

The prediction is the specific ways of how to test whether a hypothesis is true. In the given scenario, the prediction is indicated in this sentence: She thought that pulse rate would change with different types of music.

(2) hypothesis

The hypothesis is the trial answer to a stated problem based on pertinent facts found in previous studies. It might not be indicated that she did research about previous studies, but it is very likely that she came up with the hypothesis that listening to different types of music would affect pulse rate after doing some observations or research.

(4) research plan

The researcher has a research plan, which is indicated in this sentence: Each person participating in her experiment listened to seven different selections of music for 30 seconds each. The pulse rates were taken after each 30-second interval of music.
 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 69 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 27 May 2011 18:15
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Correct answer: (3) pulse rate of each group

The dependent variable refers to the variable that is influenced by the changes in the independent variable. In this experiment, the independent variable is the soda. The researcher is testing the effect of the absence or presence of caffeine on pulse rate.

Incorrect answers:

(1) type of soda given to each group

The type of soda is the independent variable because it is not affected by the other variable, which is the pulse rate.

(2) amount of soda given to each group

The amount of soda is constant among the groups; thus, it is not the dependent variable.

(4) age of participants in each group

The age of the group does not change with the manipulation of the independent variable.
 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 70 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 27 May 2011 18:17
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The researcher should have measured the number of times the second group could squeeze the clothespin prior to the exercise so that he could compare it with the number of squeezes after the exercise. On the other hand, the first group should also do two one-minute takes of squeezing. The results of the first trial of each group must be compared with the second trial. If the results of the first and second trials of the first group are the same, then the hypothesis could be false. If the results of the first and second trials of the second group are different, then the hypothesis could be true.
 
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