New York State Chemistry RegentsNew York State Earth Science Regents

 
NYS Living Environment Regents August 2010
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 41 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 27 May 2011 15:37
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Correct answer: (2) A-glucose, B-O2, C-enzymes, D-CO2

The biological process illustrated is called respiration, a process that occurs in all eukaryotes. Through this process, glucose (C6H12O6) and oxygen (O2) are converted into carbon dioxide (CO2), water, and energy by the use of specific enzymes. This is important in living organisms because through this process, stored energy (in the form of adenosine triphosphate or ATP) is made available to carry out significant biological processes such as locomotion and cellular transport.

Incorrect answers:

(1) A-O2, B-CO2, C-glucose, D-enzymes

This formula does not represent cellular respiration. Oxygen and carbon dioxide cannot produce glucose and water because hydrogen is absent in the reactant.

(3) A-enzymes, B-O2, C-CO2, D-glucose

This formula does not represent cellular respiration. Enzymes are proteins that serve as catalysts in reactions. Catalysts are chemical agents that change the rate of reaction but are not consumed during the reaction. Thus, an enzyme cannot be used as a reactant; it is only an agent in the rate of the reaction.

(4) A-glucose, B-CO2, C-enzymes, D-O2

This formula does not represent cellular respiration. The reactants, which contain four oxygen atoms, cannot yield (The verb "yield" needs an object. What can it not yield?) with only three oxygen atoms in the product.
 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 42 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 27 May 2011 15:53
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Correct answer: (4) an increased demand for land use

Among the choices given, this is the only possible result of increasing population. More population would mean more land to build houses on, more land to produce crops for food, and more land to build infrastructures necessary for producing materials for human use, such as clothing.

Incorrect answers:

(1) a decreased demand for deforestation

As population increases, more trees are necessary to produce paper, clothing, and other materials for human use that are made up of timber and its by-products.

(2) an increase in available fresh water

As population increases, more fresh water is needed for human consumption and other activities such as bathing, washing of clothes and dishes, etc.

(3) a decrease in air pollution

As population increases, more fuel is necessary for activities such as transportation and production. Thus, there will be more air pollution when the number of people increases.
 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 43 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 27 May 2011 15:56
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Correct answer: (2) greatest variety of genetic material

Biodiversity is a contracted term referring to biological diversity. Thus, there is a high level of biodiversity in ecosystem A because it has the most number of species available.

Incorrect answers:

(1) least variety of energy levels

All ecosystems illustrated have the same number of energy levels, which is four, pertaining to decomposers, autotrophs, herbivores, and carnivores.

(3) greatest number of decomposers

Though it has the most number of decomposers, it is also necessary that there are many kinds of species in other energy levels.

(4) least number of ecological niches

Ecological niche refers to the sum total of an organisms' utilization of the biotic and abiotic resources of its environment. Since there are many species in ecosystem A, then it also has the most number of niches.
 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 44 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 27 May 2011 15:59
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Correct answer: (1) dashed line coincide with all peaks

Carrying capacity is the maximum stable population that a particular environment can support over a relatively long period of time. Since the dashed line coincide with the peaks of the curve, and then it represents the maximum population that the environment allows.

Incorrect answers:

(2) The dashed line does not represent the carrying capacity because it is lower than the maximum population possible in the environment.

(3) The dashed line does not represent the carrying capacity because it is located below the maximum population that the environment can support.

(4) The dashed line does not represent the carrying capacity because it represents the lowest population possible in the environment.
 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 45 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 27 May 2011 16:05
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Cone snails produce prey-specific venoms to prevent competition for prey among the cone snails. If they would hunt and paralyze the same prey, they would least likely survive because of increased competition for food and, as a result, the decrease in the population of their prey. The snails will achieve a better survival rate if each type had a specific prey.

Last Updated on Friday, 27 May 2011 16:12
 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 46 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 27 May 2011 16:12
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Cone snails have various neurotoxins called conotoxins that function to block various ion channels that regulate body processes such as the movement of skeletal and heart muscles. When the channels are blocked, the chemical signal from neuron to neuron is blocked.

When the cone snail strikes its prey, it delivers a mixture of toxins to the body of the prey called the venom. Each type of toxin blocks a certain ion channel. Thus, various body processes are blocked, causing different types of paralysis to the prey to ensure maximum assault of the snail.
 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 47 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 27 May 2011 16:14

The cone snails cannot cope up with the fast movement of fish in the water. Thus, it must only take as much as 2 seconds to paralyze the fish so that the prey is not too far from the snail after paralysis. Once the fish is paralyzed, it cannot move any farther, and the snail can consume it easily.
 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 48 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 27 May 2011 16:18
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Shells serve as protection to the snail. Since cone snails move by the use of their slow muscular foot, shells have developed in different forms to prevent predation. Some cone snails have developed spines, and these are usually found in areas where there are high incidences of cone snail predation by larger animals. Some have also developed lighter coloring to lessen their visibility to predators.
 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 49 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 27 May 2011 16:23
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Correct answer: Biofuel crops

Biofuels are alternative fuels that come from plants and plant-derived sources. Biofuels are usually used for transportation. One such of biofuel is called the bioethanol, which can be used as substitute for petrol. It is produced by fermenting cellulose from corn (maize) and sugar cane. Another type of biofuel is the biodiesel, which can be sourced from oil crops like rapeseed, palm, and soybean.

Biofuel crops are considered as a renewable source of energy because it can be easily replaced (by planting the crops) in a relatively short span of time.

 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 50 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 27 May 2011 16:27
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Biofuels are carbon-neutral: the carbon dioxide released during combustion is initially extracted from the atmosphere during photosynthesis, thus there is zero net greenhouse gas emissions.

Biofuels also contributes to the reduction in the release of volatile organic compounds, as the addition of ethanol gasoline oxygenates the fuel mixture so it burns more completely. Ethanol also rids the use of harmful lead.

Since biofuels come from plants, they are biodegradable and non-toxic. Thus, biofuel spillages are not as harmful as fossil fuel spillages.

 
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