New York State Chemistry RegentsNew York State Earth Science Regents

 
NYS Living Environment Regents August 2010
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 11 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 27 May 2011 12:25

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Correct answer: (2) Increased concentration of glucose in leaf cells

Photosynthesis is the conversion of light energy, water, and carbon dioxide (CO2) into oxygen and chemical energy in the form of glucose, which is then to be stored or distributed to the different parts of the plant. Thus, when more carbon dioxide is used up, more glucose is produced as well.

Incorrect answers:

(1) Increased use of starch in root cells

During photosynthesis, carbon dioxide (CO2) and water is converted to glucose and oxygen through the use of light energy. Thus, sugar, such as starch, is not used up during the process. Sugar, together with oxygen, is used up during respiration.

(3) Increased ATP in root cells

ATP or adenosine triphosphate is the energy currency of cells. Energy is stored in the cells in the form of glucose. Thus, the energy formed after photosynthesis is not found as ATP, but as glucose molecules.

(4) Decreased concentration of oxygen in leaf cells

Plants produce their own food through the conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2), water, and sunlight into glucose and oxygen. Since this is a chemical reaction, then it must follow the rule that the reactants and the products must be in equilibrium. When carbon dioxide (reactant) is increased, the products, oxygen and glucose, must also increase.

 

 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 12 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 27 May 2011 12:35
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Correct answer: (1) four types of base subunits

Each cell has a nucleus, where most of the genetic information is stored. In the nucleus, there are chromosomes, composed of coiled DNA molecules. Each segment of the DNA corresponds to a gene. Genes are made up of four types of nitrogenous bases-adenine, guanine, thymine, and cytosine. The combination of these bases will dictate which amino acids will be formed, which in turn will compose a protein (Kindly confirm).

The four macromolecules of life are protein, carbohydrate, lipids, and nucleic acids. Each of these is entirely different from the other, with different structures and functions.

Incorrect answers:

(2) folded chains of glucose molecules

A glucose unit is an example of a monosaccharide, which is a simple sugar or carbohydrate. A gene is a portion of the DNA, which is a nucleic acid.

(3) twenty different kinds of amino acids

Amino acid is the basic unit of a protein. Genes, which code (The word "code" seems awkward. Kindly explain this jargon further.) for the expression of proteins, are composed of nucleic acids which is an entirely different kind of macromolecule.

(4) complex, energy-rich inorganic molecules

Inorganic molecules are usually present in minerals, not in biological compounds found in the body.
 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 13 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 27 May 2011 12:38
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Correct answer: (3) development influenced by the environment

Phenotype, the physical and physiological traits of an organism, is influenced by the genotype (genetic makeup of the organism) and the environment. In given situation, the growth of the salamander was influenced by the surrounding, which is not favorable for its development.

Incorrect answers:

(1) the production of gametes

Gametes are haploid sex cells (egg or sperm) that unite during fertilization. Gametogenesis or the production of gametes is not exemplified in the given situation.

(2) faulty genes found in aquatic organisms

The genetic makeup of organisms could be changed through mutation. However, mutation is not exhibited in the given situation. The genes were not properly expressed due to the unfavorable condition of the environment.

(4) the production of new organism by environmental engineering

There is no such thing as environmental engineering where a new organism can be developed by the alteration in the environment. An organism can develop better traits by transferring the gene of interest from one organism to another through genetic engineering technology.
 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 14 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 27 May 2011 12:40
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Correct answer: (2) The fossil record provides samples of every organism that ever lived.

Fossil records refer to all the fossil samples found on rocks and sediments, whether discovered or not. These records reflect the evolution of organisms-from those that are already extinct due to failure of survival, to those that have evolved and lived up to the present.

Incorrect answers:

(1) Genetic alterations occur every time cell reproduction occurs.

Evolution refers to the changes that occur in organisms over time. Evolution is usually brought about by alterations in the environment that cause a change in the genotype of an organism. Genetic alterations such as recombination of genetic information normally occur during meiosis and are not considered as evolution.

(3) Populations that have advantageous characteristics will increase in number.

Though this statement is true, but it does not support the concept of evolution. Evolution refers to the changes that occur in organisms over time due to the disadvantageous circumstances that occurred in its environment.

(4) Few organisms survive when the environment remains the same.

This statement is not true. Ecological stability is usually advantageous for organisms because they no longer need to adapt to any changes. Thus, when there is stability, most populations would increase in number.
 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 15 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 27 May 2011 12:42
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Correct answer: (2) the gametes of either parent

Mutation can only cause a change in the next generations if it occurs in the sex cells or gametes of either parent and alters their genetic information. Mutation that occurs in the body cells, such as skin cells and nerve cells, will not affect the offspring because these cells would not be involved in the fertilization of new offsprings.

Incorrect answers:

(1) the skin cells of the mother

Mutations that occurr in the skin cells will not affect the DNA of the offspring because body cells are not involved in fertilization of the formation of offsprings.

(3) all the body cells of both parents

The mutation of body cells will not cause an alteration in the DNA because they do not contribute during fertilization. Only mutated sex cells or gametes may cause a transformation in the genetic information of the offspring.

(4) only the nerve cells of the father

A nerve cell is an example of a body cell. When body cells are mutated, the changes are not passed on to the next generation because only the mutated gametes or sex cells are involved in the formation of offspring.
 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 16 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 27 May 2011 12:45
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Correct answer: (2) become extinct over time

Extinction refers to the complete loss of a species in the biosphere. Extinction can be caused by predation, habitat destruction, demographic phenomena, disease, coextinction, and drastic environmental changes such as climate change. When species fail to adapt with these factors, their population starts to decrease until such time when the last species dies and, thus, become extinct.

Incorrect answers:

(1) develop many mutated cells

Mutation is the rare change in the DNA of genes that ultimately creates genetic diversity. When there is lack of variation in a species, then mutated cells would most likely not develop.

(3) begin to reproduce sexually

Organisms that reproduce asexually cannot change their mode of reproduction automatically unless they undergo speciation, or the formation of new species as form of adapting to the changes in the environment.

(4) develop resistance to diseases

If the organism fails to adapt and form variation, then it would be impossible for it to develop resistance to diseases, which is usually a complex genetic trait in organisms.
 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 17 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 27 May 2011 12:47
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Correct answer: (4) decreased biodiversity within species

The asexual reproduction exhibited by animals, like some genera of fishes, amphibians, and lizards, is called parthenogenesis. It is a process in which the egg develops without being fertilized. Sharks undergo a complex form of parthenogenesis that involves the doubling of chromosomes after meiosis to create diploid offsprings. Since crossing over of chromosomes did not occur between two different individuals, there is no recombination of genetic material that is responsible for diversity among species.

Incorrect answers:

(1) increased gene recombinations

No genetic recombination occurs during the asexual reproduction because there is no crossing over of chromosomes between two different individuals.

(2) increased number of males produced

During parthenogenesis in sharks, all the offsprings produced are females due to their X-Y sex-determination system, wherein female chromosomes are represented as XX. Thus, no male sharks (with XY chromosome) will be conceived due to the absence of Y chromosome.

(3) decreased number of eggs used

During asexual reproduction, eggs are still used. The eggs turn into diploid offsprings when the chromosomes double after meiosis. Thus, there is no change in the number of eggs used during reproduction.
Last Updated on Friday, 27 May 2011 12:50
 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 18 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 27 May 2011 12:50
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Correct answer: (4) toxins in the bloodstream of the mother

Cigarettes contain nicotine, carbon monoxide and tar that can be distributed to the bloodstream through smoking or secondhand smoke. These toxins may prevent the flow of oxygen from the mother to the baby.

Incorrect answers:

(1) decreased digestive activity in the stomach of the fetus

The fetus is not yet capable of digestion. It receives nutrition from the mother through the placenta, which is a combination of maternal and embryonic tissues that transport nutrients, respiratory gases, and wastes to and from the fetus.

(2) a decrease in the amount of oxygen in the ovary of the mother

Though it is true that there would be a decrease in the amount of the oxygen transported to the fetus when a mother smokes, it is not true that respiratory gases like oxygen passes through the ovary. Respiratory gases are transported to the fetus through the placenta.

(3) inhalation of secondhand smoke by the fetus

The fetus is incapable of inhaling air yet. It receives respiratory gases from the blood of the mother through the placenta.
 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 19 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 27 May 2011 12:53
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Correct answer: (1) foreign antigens

Antigens are foreign molecules that do not belong to the host organism and that elicit an immune response. Pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria, are the usual antigens encountered by the body. When an organ is transplanted from another individual (donor), some of the molecules in that organ may be recognized as foreign and harmful by the host's immune system. Thus, drugs are necessary to suppress the immune system from recognizing the components of the new organ as antigen.

Incorrect answers:

(2) foreign antibodies

Antibodies are antigen-binding immunoglobulins produced by the B cells that function as the effectors in an immune response. Antibodies are formed after the immune system recognizes the presence of an antigen. The immune system will only form antibodies in the donated organ once the system recognizes the presence of antigens.

(3) DNA molecules

The organ is composed of body cells that contain the DNA. However, the expression (the term "expression" seems awkward. Is this a jargon?) of the genes in the DNA do not elicit an immune response.

(4) pathogenic microbes

Pathogenic microbes are considered as antigens. When organs are transplanted from one body to another, the donor undergoes procedures that ensures that the organ for donation do not contain any pathogens that will be harmful to the host.
 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 20 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 27 May 2011 12:57
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Correct answer: (1) delivery of sperm

Structure A refers to the vas deferens. During ejaculation, the sperm formed in the testes are propelled from the epididymis through the vas deferens, which are two ducts located from the scrotum around and behind the urinary bladder, where each joins a duct from the seminal vesicle.

Incorrect answers:

(2) production of gametes

The production of gametes occur in the male gonads or testes (testis, singular), which is composed of highly coiled tubes surrounded by several layers of connective tissue. In the illustration, the testis is the oblong-shaped structure where the vas deferens (structure A) is connected.

(3) production of hormones

The production of androgen, the principal male reproductive hormone, occurs in the testes (oblong-shaped structure at the bottom of the illustration, where structure A is attached), particularly in the interstitial cells of Leydig.

(4) excretion of urine

Urine excretion is not a function of the reproductive system. The organs, though, are interconnected because in males, urine and sperm both pass out through the urethra. However, structure A is not responsible for urine production. Urine is produced in the kidneys then passes through the urinary bladder, which is the large funnel-like structure in the upper part of the illustration.
 
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