New York State Chemistry RegentsNew York State Earth Science Regents

 
Organization of Life
Living Environment Regents June 2008 Question 04 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 23 April 2009 05:13
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Single-celled organisms range greatly in size, from less than 1 micron to more than 100 microns for some. Organelles are microscopic specialized subunits, within a cell that has specific cell function. Homeostasis is a biological process that regulates its internal environment and hence maintains a stable condition.

Based o this information,

Correct Answer: Option 4
 
Living Environment Regents June 2008 Question 05 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 23 April 2009 05:22
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A mitochondrion contains outer and inner membranes composed of phospholipid bilayers and proteins. The two membranes, however, have different properties. Because of this double-membraned organization, there are five distinct compartments within the mitochondrion. There is the outer mitochondrial membrane, the intermembrane space (the space between the outer and inner membranes), the inner mitochondrial membrane, the cristae space (formed by infoldings of the inner membrane), and the matrix (space within the inner membrane).

Each membrane has specific enzymes for oxidation, transport of nutrients, act as biological catalysts. hence when toxic agents interfere with the ezymes, they affect their normal functionality. Hence the most apprpriate answer for above question is

Correct Answer: Option 3
 
Living Environment Regents June 2008 Question 09 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 23 April 2009 05:36
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Amino Acids are the chemical units or "building blocks" of the body that make up proteins. Protein substances make up the muscles, tendons, organs, glands, nails, and hair. Growth, repair and maintenance of all cells are dependent upon them. Next to water, protein makes up the greatest portion of our body weight. Amino Acids that must be obtained from the diet are called "Essential Amino Acids" other Amino Acids that the body can manufacture from other sources are called "Non Essential Amino Acids."

Correct Answer: Option 2
 
Living Environment Regents June 2008 Question 10 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 23 April 2009 05:39
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In cell biology, every cell has a nucleus and the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, or kernel), also sometimes referred to as the "control center", is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells. It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes. The genes within these chromosomes are the cell's nuclear genome. The function of the nucleus is to maintain the integrity of these genes and to control the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression.

Gene, chromosome, nucleus & cell

Correct Answer: Option 2
Last Updated on Thursday, 23 April 2009 05:47
 
Living Environment Regents June 2008 Question 35 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 23 April 2009 07:06
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Hormones are chemicals released by cells that affect cells in other parts of the body
Hormones have the following effects on the body:
  • stimulation or inhibition of growth
  • mood swings
  • activation or inhibition of the immune system
  • regulation of metabolism
  • preparation of the body for fighting, fleeing, mating, and other activity
A hormone may also regulate the production and release of other hormones. Hormone signals control the internal environment of the body through homeostasis.
Correct Answer: Option 3
 
Living Environment Regents June 2008 Question 36 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 23 April 2009 07:11
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The structure labeled A is the cell wall of the cell.

A cell wall is a tough, flexible and sometimes fairly rigid layer that surrounds some types of cells. It is located outside the cell membrane and provides these cells with structural support and protection, and also acts as a filtering agent. A major function of the cell wall is to act as a pressure vessel, preventing over-expansion when water enters the cell.Despite the rigidity of the cell wall, chemical signals and cellular excretions are allowed to pass between cells. Hence, rigidity and permeability are the main characteristics of the cell wall.

Correct Answer: Option 1
 
Living Environment Regents June 2008 Question 53 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 23 April 2009 08:20
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Living Environment Regents June 2008 Question 78 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 23 April 2009 11:18

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Biological membranes are not equally permeable for all substances. They are selectively permeable, i.e. the membranes can be permeated by a substance A but not by a substance B. Strictly speaking they are only permeable for some gases like oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, etc., because only these can permeate a membrane by free diffusion.

Correct Answer: Because cell membranes are selectively permeable.

 
Living Environment Regents June 2008 Question 80 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 23 April 2009 11:22
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The cell looses water content since the level of water in the solution is lesser than that of the cell.

Correct Answer: Option 3
 


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