New York State Chemistry RegentsNew York State Earth Science Regents

 
Heredity and Genetics
Living Environment Regents June 2008 Question 06 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 23 April 2009 05:29
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Molds consist of all kinds of microscopic fungi that develop in the form of multicellular filaments. These multicellular filaments are called hyphae. A connected network of these tubular branching hyphae has multiple, genetically identical nuclei and is considered a single organism, referred to as a colony or in more technical terms a mycelium. Molds derive the energy to survive from the organic matter on which they live and not from photosynthesis. Bread mold grows quickly at a temperature between 15 and 30 degree Celsius. A moist bread piece kept in a humid and enclosed container gathers bread mold within a couple of days. The bread mold breeds on bread and expand from spores, which float in the air.

The process by which the information from gene is used in the synthesis of functional gene product, which is a biochemical material like a protein, is referred to as Gene Expression.

Correct Answer: Option 1
Last Updated on Monday, 30 November 2009 14:45
 
Living Environment Regents June 2008 Question 12 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 23 April 2009 05:53
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Gene Replication: is also referred to as DNA replication is a process in which each strand of the original double-stranded DNA molecule serves as template for the reproduction of the complementary strand. Hence, following DNA replication, two identical DNA molecules have been produced from a single double-stranded DNA molecule.

Random Mutation: Genome is made up of DNA which is composed of four different nucleotidesnamely  adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). If we change a particular letter to a different letter (an A changing to a T, for example) we say that a “substitution” has occurred. The adenine (A) molecule is similar in structure to the guanine (G) molecule, referred to as purines and the thymine (T) molecule is similar to the cytosine (C) molecule, referred to as pyrimidines). Purines are more likely to change to another purine (A -> G or G -> A) . The same is true for pyrimidines – they are more likely to mutate to another pyrimidine than to a purine. Purine to purine (A <=> G) and pyrimidine to pyrimidine (C <=> T) mutations are referred to as transitions, whereas purine to pyrimidine and pyrimidine to pyrimidine mutations are transversions.

Natural Selection: It is a process by which heritable distinct variant characteristics become more common in successive generations of a population of reproducing organisms, and unfavorable heritable traits become less common, due to differential reproduction of genotypes.

Selective Breeding
: is the process of breeding plants and animals for particular genetic traits. Typically, strains which are selectively breed are domesticated.

Correct Answer: Option 4
Last Updated on Monday, 30 November 2009 14:41
 
Living Environment Regents June 2008 Question 21 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 23 April 2009 06:25
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The term clone is used in horticulture to mean all descendants of a single plant, produced by vegetative reproduction or apomixis. Cloning is a mirror image reproduction of same number of chromosomes and same type of genes. Produces only genetically identical offspring since all divisions are by mitosis. Offspring called clones meaning that each is an exact copy of the original organism

Correct The term clone is used in horticulture to mean all descendants of a single plant, produced by vegetative reproduction or apomixis. Cloning is a mirror image reproduction of same number of chromosomes and same type of genes. Produces only genetically identical offspring since all divisions are by mitosis. Offspring called clones meaning that each is an exact copy of the original organism

Correct Answer: Option 1

 
Living Environment Regents June 2008 Question 32 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 23 April 2009 07:01

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In genetics, an insertion (also called an insertion mutation) is the addition of one or more nucleotide base pairs into a DNA sequence. This can often happen in microsatellite regions due to the DNA polymerase slipping. Insertions can be anywhere in size from one base pair incorrectly inserted into a DNA sequence to a section of one chromosome inserted into another. Insertions can be particularly hazardous if they occur in an exon, the amino acid coding region of a gene

Correct Answer: Option 2

 
Living Environment Regents June 2008 Question 38 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 23 April 2009 07:17
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Carbohydrates are the most abundant of the four major classes of biomolecules. They fill numerous roles in living things, such as the storage and transport of energy (eg: starch, glycogen) and structural components. Additionally, carbohydrates and their derivatives play major roles in the working process of the immune system, fertilization, pathogenesis, blood clotting, and development

A gene is the basic unit of heredity in a living organism. All living things depend on genes. Genes hold the information to build and maintain their cells and pass genetic traits to offspring. In general terms, a gene is a segment of nucleic acid that, taken as a whole, specifies a trait

Ribosomes are complexes of RNA and protein that are found in all cells. Ribosomes from bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes, the three domains of life on Earth, have significantly different structure and RNA

A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and protein that is found in cells. A chromosome is a single piece of coiled DNA containing many genes, regulatory elements and other nucleotide sequences. Chromosomes also contain DNA-bound proteins, which serve to package the DNA and control its function

Correct Answer: Option 2
 
Living Environment Regents June 2008 Question 40 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 23 April 2009 07:35
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Genetic diversity is a level of biodiversity that refers to the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species. It is distinguished from genetic variability, which describes the tendency of genetic characteristics to vary.

Mutations are changes to the nucleotide sequence of the genetic material of an organism. Mutations can be caused by copying errors in the genetic material during cell division, by exposure to ultraviolet or ionizing radiation, chemical mutagens, or viruses, or can be induced by the organism, itself, by cellular processes such as hypermutation

Correct Answer: Option 1
 
Living Environment Regents June 2008 Question 50 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 23 April 2009 08:04
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Correct Answer: Mating of one Earthworm with another leads to better survival due variations due to the occurrence of genetic recombination.
Last Updated on Monday, 30 November 2009 14:43
 
Living Environment Regents June 2008 Question 54 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 23 April 2009 08:22
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Mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of a gene. Mutations in a gene's DNA sequence can alter the amino acid sequence of the protein encoded by the gene.

Correct Answer: The change in virus could come due to mutation
 
Living Environment Regents June 2008 Question 65 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 23 April 2009 10:01
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Correct Answer: The mutations in body cells are not transmitted to offspring.
Last Updated on Monday, 30 November 2009 14:42
 


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