Molds consist of all kinds of microscopic fungi that develop in the form of multicellular filaments. These multicellular filaments are called hyphae. A connected network of these tubular branching hyphae has multiple, genetically identical nuclei and is considered a single organism, referred to as a colony or in more technical terms a mycelium. Molds derive the energy to survive from the organic matter on which they live and not from photosynthesis. Bread mold grows quickly at a temperature between 15 and 30 degree Celsius. A moist bread piece kept in a humid and enclosed container gathers bread mold within a couple of days. The bread mold breeds on bread and expand from spores, which float in the air.
The process by which the information from gene is used in the synthesis of functional gene product, which is a biochemical material like a protein, is referred to as Gene Expression.
Gene Replication: is also referred to as DNA replication is a process in which each strand of the original double-stranded DNA molecule serves as template for the reproduction of the complementary strand. Hence, following DNA replication, two identical DNA molecules have been produced from a single double-stranded DNA molecule.
Random Mutation: Genome is made up of DNA which is composed of four different nucleotidesnamely adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). If we change a particular letter to a different letter (an A changing to a T, for example) we say that a “substitution” has occurred. The adenine (A) molecule is similar in structure to the guanine (G) molecule, referred to as purines and the thymine (T) molecule is similar to the cytosine (C) molecule, referred to as pyrimidines). Purines are more likely to change to another purine (A -> G or G -> A) . The same is true for pyrimidines – they are more likely to mutate to another pyrimidine than to a purine. Purine to purine (A <=> G) and pyrimidine to pyrimidine (C <=> T) mutations are referred to as transitions, whereas purine to pyrimidine and pyrimidine to pyrimidine mutations are transversions.
Natural Selection: It is a process by which heritable distinct variant characteristics become more common in successive generations of a population of reproducing organisms, and unfavorable heritable traits become less common, due to differential reproduction of genotypes. Selective Breeding: is the process of breeding plants and animals for particular genetic traits. Typically, strains which are selectively breed are domesticated.
The term clone is used in horticulture to mean all descendants of a single plant, produced by vegetative reproduction or apomixis. Cloning is a mirror image reproduction of same number of chromosomes and same type of genes. Produces only genetically identical offspring since all divisions are by mitosis. Offspring called clones meaning that each is an exact copy of the original organism
Correct The term clone is used in horticulture to mean all descendants of a single plant, produced by vegetative reproduction or apomixis. Cloning is a mirror image reproduction of same number of chromosomes and same type of genes. Produces only genetically identical offspring since all divisions are by mitosis. Offspring called clones meaning that each is an exact copy of the original organism
In genetics, an insertion (also called an insertion mutation) is the addition of one or more nucleotide base pairs into a DNA sequence. This can often happen in microsatellite regions due to the DNA polymerase slipping. Insertions can be anywhere in size from one base pair incorrectly inserted into a DNA sequence to a section of one chromosome inserted into another. Insertions can be particularly hazardous if they occur in an exon, the amino acid coding region of a gene
Carbohydrates are the most abundant of the four major classes of biomolecules. They fill numerous roles in living things, such as the storage and transport of energy (eg: starch, glycogen) and structural components. Additionally, carbohydrates and their derivatives play major roles in the working process of the immune system, fertilization, pathogenesis, blood clotting, and development
A gene is the basic unit of heredity in a living organism. All living things depend on genes. Genes hold the information to build and maintain their cells and pass genetic traits to offspring. In general terms, a gene is a segment of nucleic acid that, taken as a whole, specifies a trait
Ribosomes are complexes of RNA and protein that are found in all cells. Ribosomes from bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes, the three domains of life on Earth, have significantly different structure and RNA
A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and protein that is found in cells. A chromosome is a single piece of coiled DNA containing many genes, regulatory elements and other nucleotide sequences. Chromosomes also contain DNA-bound proteins, which serve to package the DNA and control its function
Genetic diversity is a level of biodiversity that refers to the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species. It is distinguished from genetic variability, which describes the tendency of genetic characteristics to vary.
Mutations are changes to the nucleotide sequence of the genetic material of an organism. Mutations can be caused by copying errors in the genetic material during cell division, by exposure to ultraviolet or ionizing radiation, chemical mutagens, or viruses, or can be induced by the organism, itself, by cellular processes such as hypermutation
We are not affiliated with, nor endorsed by, the New York State Education Department.
The information contained in this website is for general information purposes only. The information is provided by "Technology Strategies for Success" and while we strive to keep the information up-to-date and correct, we make no representations or warranties of any kind, express or implied, about the completeness, accuracy, reliability, suitability or availability with respect to the website or the information, products, services, or related graphics contained on the website for any purpose. Any reliance you place on such information is therefore strictly at your own risk.