New York State Chemistry RegentsNew York State Earth Science Regents

 
Ecology
Living Environment Regents June 2008 Question 01 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 23 April 2009 04:56
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Autotrophic Organisms usually applies to plants that are capable of synthesizing its own food from organic substances, because of presence of chloroplasts. They utilize carbon dioxide as the source of carbon and obtain their energy from sun or oxidizing inorganic substances like sulphur, nitrate salts, hydrogen and ammonium.

Heterotrophic Organisms are organisms that use organic substrates to get its chemical energy for the life cycle. Heterotrophes are usually referred as consumers in food chain and obtain organic carbon by either eating other heterotrophes or autotrophes.

Based on above definitions, alga and corn fall under Plant Kingdom and hence:

Correct answer: Option 1
Last Updated on Thursday, 23 April 2009 05:12
 
Living Environment Regents June 2008 Question 02 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 23 April 2009 05:05

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A pond ecosystem is a freshwater ecosystem that consists of algae as a base trophic level for all life in the system. The other entities of the ecosystem include fish, smaller insects, microorganisms, bacteria, water snakes, water bugs, fogs, tadpoles, and turtles etc, which are interdependent on each other to form a complete food chain.

Hence a stable ecosystem would not contain more consumers than producers

Correct Answer: Option 4

 
Living Environment Regents June 2008 Question 14 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 23 April 2009 05:59
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A living organism can survive in any environment, if it can adapt to changes in the environment. "Survival of the fittest" is the concept relating to competition for survival or predominance. (Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by what Darwin termed natural selection)

Correct Answer: Option 4
 
Living Environment Regents June 2008 Question 24 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 23 April 2009 06:37
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Primary production is the production of organic compounds from atmospheric or aquatic carbon dioxide, principally through the process of photosynthesis, The organisms responsible for primary production are known as primary producers or autotrophs, and form the base of the food chain. In terrestrial ecoregions, these are mainly plants, while in aquatic ecoregions algae are primarily responsible

Correct Answer: Option 1
Last Updated on Thursday, 23 April 2009 06:42
 
Living Environment Regents June 2008 Question 25 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 23 April 2009 06:42
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Ecosystems are communities of plants, animals, and other organisms that live and interact with each other and with nonliving environmental factors. The nonliving factors, or conditions, include temperature, precipitation, altitude, and latitude, among others. These factors play an important role in determining what types of vegetation can live in an ecosystem.

Correct Answer: Option 2
 
Living Environment Regents June 2008 Question 26 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 23 April 2009 06:49
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A trade-off (or tradeoff) is a situation that involves losing one quality or aspect of something in return for gaining another quality or aspect. It implies a decision to be made with full comprehension of both the upside and downside of a particular choice.

Conservation is an ethic of resource use, allocation, and protection. Its primary focus is upon maintaining the health of the natural world: its forests, fisheries, habitats, and biological diversity.

A technological fix refers to solving a problem by using technology.

Correct Answer: Option 2
 
Living Environment Regents June 2008 Question 27 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 23 April 2009 06:52

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Grass is producer -- 1 producer, cricket feeds on grass—1 herbivore, frog and owl eat cricket—2 predators

Correct Answer: Option 4

 
Living Environment Regents June 2008 Question 28 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 23 April 2009 06:53
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Genetic manipulation refers to the creation of new life forms through deliberate modification of DNA––the material responsible for inherited characteristics

Evolution is change in the genetic material of a population of organisms from one generation to the next. Though the changes produced in any one generation are small, differences accumulate with each subsequent generation and can, over time, cause substantial changes in the organisms. This process can culminate in the emergence of new species

Ecological succession, a fundamental concept in ecology, refers to more-or-less predictable and orderly changes in the composition or structure of an ecological community. Succession may be initiated either by formation of new, unoccupied habitat (e.g., a lava flow or a severe landslide) or by some form of disturbance (e.g. fire, severe windthrow, logging) of an existing community. Succession that begins in areas where no soil is initially present is called primary succession, whereas succession that begins in areas where soil is already present is called secondary succession.

Equilibrium is the condition of a system in which competing influences are balanced

Correct Answer: Option 3
 
Living Environment Regents June 2008 Question 29 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 23 April 2009 06:55
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"Survival of fittest"

Human beings are equipped with and continuously develop the skills, knowledge and the advancements in technology to modify their surroundings to suit their needs. This refers to the theory of the survival of the fittest by Charles Darwin.

Plants only can remove carbon dioxide.
Finite resources cannot be increased and are available only in a limited quantity.
Humans do not reproduce faster than most other species.

Hence option 1 is the best answer for thequestion.

Correct Answer: Option 1
 
Living Environment Regents June 2008 Question 30 PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 23 April 2009 06:57
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Herbivory is a form of predation in which an organism, known as an herbivore, consumes principally autotrophes such as plants, algae and photosynthesizing bacteria.

The Rabbits are herbivores and cannot prey on native herbivores.
If the Rabbits reproduced slowly they cannot grow fast.
Interbreeding is not an assured method of faster growth.

Hence, option 3 is the most suitable answer.

Correct Answer: Option 3
 
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