New York State Chemistry RegentsNew York State Earth Science Regents

 
Heredity and Genetics
Living Environment Regents January 2008 Question 01 PDF Print E-mail
Tuesday, 21 April 2009 07:20

image001

Option 2 - Heredity


Heredity is a process by which an offspring cell or organism acquires characteristics of parent cell or organism. In more generic sense, it is referred to as passing on "traits" from parents to organisms. Gregor Mendel derived the basic concepts of heredity, which became a foundation for research and development in the field of genetics.

Incorrect Options

Option 1 – Differentiation: In biological terms, differentiation refers to cellular differentiation. Cells are organized into tissues, which perform specific physiological function. Differentiation is a process in which a less specialized becomes more specialized cell.

Option 3 – Immunity: Immunity is a state that describes presence of sufficient biological defenses to prevent infection, disease or other biological invasion.

Option 4 – Evolution: Evolution is change in genetic material from one generation to other. There can be small changes from one generation to other, which substantially accumulate over time causing substantial change in organisms.

 
Living Environment Regents January 2008 Question 07 PDF Print E-mail
Tuesday, 21 April 2009 09:50

image007

Option 4 – Selective Breeding

Selective breeding is the process of breeding plants and animals for particular genetic traits. This is accomplished by selecting plants found to be aesthetically desirable, by controlling the mating of selected individuals. Such processes, repeated over many generations, can change the hereditary makeup and value of a plant.

Incorrect Options

Option 1 – Differentiation: In biological terms, differentiation refers to cellular differentiation. Cells are organized into tissues, which perform specific physiological function. Differentiation is a process in which a less specialized becomes more specialized cell.

Option 2 – Cloning: Cloning in biology is the process of producing populations of genetically-identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects or plants reproduce asexually.

Option 3 – Gene insertion: In genetics, an insertion (an insertion mutation) is the addition of one or more nucleotide base pairs into a DNA sequence.

Last Updated on Tuesday, 21 April 2009 10:05
 
Living Environment Regents January 2008 Question 11 PDF Print E-mail
Tuesday, 21 April 2009 10:31

image011

Option 3 – Genetic Engineering

Is a term that applies to the direct manipulation of an organism's genes. Genetic engineering uses the techniques of cloning and transformation to alter the structure and characteristics of genes directly.  Some examples are in improving crop technology, the manufacture of synthetic human insulin through the use of modified bacteria etc.

Incorrect Answers

Option 1 – Natural Selection: Natural selection is a process that results in the adaptation of an organism to its environment by means of selectively reproducing changes in its genotype, or genetic constitution. It is an environment determines which members of a species survive to reproduce and so pass on their genes to the next generation (survival of the fittest). The environmental effects lead to varying degrees of reproductive success among individuals of a population of organisms with different hereditary characters, or traits. The characters that inhibit reproductive success decrease in frequency from generation to generation. The resulting increase in the proportion of reproductively successful individuals usually enhances the adaptation of the population to its environment.


Option 2 - Asexual Production: Asexual reproduction is reproduction which does not involve meiosis, ploidy reduction, or fertilization. Only one parent is involved in asexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction may provide a secondary means of multiplying in organisms that ordinarily reproduce sexually.

Option 4 – Habitat modification: Habitat modification alters the structure of tropical host parasite food webs. It is the process by which a natural habitat is modified intentionally or unintentionally.

 
Living Environment Regents January 2008 Question 16 PDF Print E-mail
Tuesday, 21 April 2009 10:52

image016

Option 3 – Mitotic Cell Division

Mitosis is nuclear division plus cytokinesis, and produces two identical daughter cells during prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

 
Living Environment Regents January 2008 Question 34 PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 22 April 2009 04:56

image034

Option 1 – A

Mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of a gene. Mutations in a gene's DNA sequence can alter the amino acid sequence of the protein encoded by the gene. The DNA sequence is interpreted in groups of three nucleotide bases, called codons. Each codon specifies a single amino acid in a protein.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 22 April 2009 05:04
 
Living Environment Regents January 2008 Question 41 PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 22 April 2009 05:34

image040_A

image041

Option 3 - Enzymes

Enzymes are biomolecules that catalyze. Enzymes bind temporarily to one or more of the reactants of the reaction they catalyze. In doing so, they lower the amount of activation energy needed and thus speed up the reaction

 
Living Environment Regents January 2008 Question 68 PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 22 April 2009 08:13
image067_Aimage068
Option 4 - Dog

Among Tuna, Chicken, Moth and Dog; Dog has the least number of differences in cytochrome c compared to humans.
 


Copyright Information

All works and materials contained within this site Copyright © 2009 Technology Strategies For Success inc.

Disclaimer

We are not affiliated with, nor endorsed by, the New York State Education Department.

The information contained in this website is for general information purposes only. The information is provided by "Technology Strategies for Success" and while we strive to keep the information up-to-date and correct, we make no representations or warranties of any kind, express or implied, about the completeness, accuracy, reliability, suitability or availability with respect to the website or the information, products, services, or related graphics contained on the website for any purpose. Any reliance you place on such information is therefore strictly at your own risk.