New York State Chemistry RegentsNew York State Earth Science Regents

Evolution: Change Over Time
Living Environment Regents January 2008 Question 07 PDF Print E-mail
Tuesday, 21 April 2009 09:50


Option 4 – Selective Breeding

Selective breeding is the process of breeding plants and animals for particular genetic traits. This is accomplished by selecting plants found to be aesthetically desirable, by controlling the mating of selected individuals. Such processes, repeated over many generations, can change the hereditary makeup and value of a plant.

Incorrect Options

Option 1 – Differentiation: In biological terms, differentiation refers to cellular differentiation. Cells are organized into tissues, which perform specific physiological function. Differentiation is a process in which a less specialized becomes more specialized cell.

Option 2 – Cloning: Cloning in biology is the process of producing populations of genetically-identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects or plants reproduce asexually.

Option 3 – Gene insertion: In genetics, an insertion (an insertion mutation) is the addition of one or more nucleotide base pairs into a DNA sequence.

Last Updated on Tuesday, 21 April 2009 10:05
Living Environment Regents January 2008 Question 10 PDF Print E-mail
Tuesday, 21 April 2009 10:21
Option 1 – Natural Selection

Natural selection is a process that results in the adaptation of an organism to its environment by means of selectively reproducing changes in its genotype, or genetic constitution. It is an environment determines which members of a species survive to reproduce and so pass on their genes to the next generation (survival of the fittest). The environmental effects lead to varying degrees of reproductive success among individuals of a population of organisms with different hereditary characters, or traits. The characters that inhibit reproductive success decrease in frequency from generation to generation. The resulting increase in the proportion of reproductively successful individuals usually enhances the adaptation of the population to its environment.

Incorrect Answers

Option 2 – Genetic Manipulation (Genetic Engineering): Is a term that applies to the direct manipulation of an organism's genes. Genetic engineering uses the techniques of cloning and transformation to alter the structure and characteristics of genes directly.  Some examples are in improving crop technology, the manufacture of synthetic human insulin through the use of modified bacteria etc.

Option 3 – Dynamic Equilibrium:  Is a state of stability while adjusting to conditions that are optimal for survival. The stability attained is actually a dynamic equilibrium, in which continuous change occurs yet relatively uniform conditions prevail. In living organisms, homeostasis is a process that maintains the equilibrium of the system.

Option 4 – Material Cycles: Refers to recycle of materials
Living Environment Regents January 2008 Question 17 PDF Print E-mail
Tuesday, 21 April 2009 10:57
Option 2 – species D is more closely related to species E than to species F.
Living Environment Regents January 2008 Question 39 PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 22 April 2009 05:20


Option 4 – The adaptive characteristics present in both A and B were insufficient for survival

Both species A and B became extinct 1.6 million years ago according to the above diagram. Hence the other 3 options are incorrect

Living Environment Regents January 2008 Question 40 PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 22 April 2009 05:31

Option 2 – Pliohippus had teeth adapted for grazing

Pliohippus is next to Merychippus in the evolution chain,hence, it did carry forward the characteristics of its ancestor helpful for survival.

However there is no information about the region of survival of Eohippus or region of migration of Pliohippus or ecological successions in each of the epoch. Hence, the other 3 options are incorrect.

Living Environment Regents January 2008 Question 66 PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 22 April 2009 08:08
Option 3 – Birds with successful beak adaptations obtained food and survived to have offspring
There is no information about the color of the beak or dominance of birds with large beaks or changes in beak shapes for availing food in the above example.
Living Environment Regents January 2008 Question 67 PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 22 April 2009 08:11
Option 3 – Base sequences of DNA

Shape of leaves and habitats of plants species are influenced by external factors.

Guard cells present on the undersurface of the leaves, only help in gas exchange and water loss but are not useful for determining the relationship between plant species.
Living Environment Regents January 2008 Question 69 PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 22 April 2009 08:15

Option 2 – These organisms have all evolved from an ancestor that produced Cytochrome c

There is no reference to reproduction or gene mutation specific association of cytochrome c with heterotrops in the table, hence option 1, 3 and 4 are incorrect.

Last Updated on Monday, 30 November 2009 15:06

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