New York State Chemistry RegentsNew York State Earth Science Regents

Reproduction and Development
Living Environment Regents June 2006 Question 15 PDF Print E-mail
Reproduction and Development


Correct Answer: Option 4 haploid egg cell+haploid sperm cell=diploid zygote

Sexual reproduction is characterized by processes that transfers a combination of genetic material to offspring, resulting in diversity. There must be a fusion of egg cell from one parent and then sperm cell from another parent. The combination of these two cells means combination of genetic material, which will further dictate the formation of embryo.

Option 1 is not sexual reproduction because there is only an egg cell involved, which cannot form an embryo on its own. Option 2 is also incorrect because an egg cell cannot divide to form sperms cells. Option 3 also cannot form an embryo because the genetic material was taken off from the cell and sperm cell is absent.

Living Environment Regents June 2006 Question 17 PDF Print E-mail
Reproduction and Development


Correct answer: Option 2 differentiation

Differentiation is the process wherein the unspecialized cells of a young organism changes at it develops to have specialized structures and functions. In the diagram, the simple zygote composed of unspecialized cells differentiates to form skin cells, nerve cells, and muscle cells.

Fertilization is the process of combining two haploid gametes from different parents to form a new offspring.  Skin cells, nerve cells and muscle cells are not another organism but also parts of the zygote.

Evolution is the change of genetic material in a population of organisms from one generation to the next. The changes in the diagram occurred in a single organism not in a population of different generations.

Mutation is the change in the chromosomes or genes of a cell that may affect the structure and development of the resultant offspring. This also occurs in different generations of a population. Thus, option 4 in incorrect.

Living Environment Regents June 2006 Question 18 PDF Print E-mail
Reproduction and Development


Correct Answer: Option 3 Estrogen and progesterone influence the activity of C.

C represents the uterus of a female reproductive system. Estrogen increases the uterine growth while progesterone maintains secretary endometrium or the uterine lining.

Option 1 is incorrect. Testosterone cannot be transferred from the testis to the ovary. Sperm is transported from testis (passing through the penis to the vagina of the female) to the ovary during fertilization.

Testosterone is a steroid hormone produced by the interstitial cells of the testes (A).It is not formed in the ovary (D) therefore option 2 is incorrect. Though it is true that testosterone aids the development of sperm

The primary roles of progesterone in the human reproduction process are the following: stimulates the growth of a cushiony endometrial lining that serves as a nest for the fertilized egg; prepares breast tissue for the secretion of breast milk; and generally maintains the advancement of pregnancy. It does not stimulate the division of egg in the uterus and thus, option 4 is incorrect.

Living Environment Regents June 2006 Question 27 PDF Print E-mail
Reproduction and Development


Correct Answer: Option 3

Photosynthesis is the process of converting light energy to chemical energy and storing it in bonds of sugar. This occurs in the chloroplast of plants. The products of photosynthesis are glucose and water. Glucose, the organic molecule, will be further broken down so that the energy will be in useable form (carbon dioxide). The process of converting glucose (and oxygen) into carbon dioxide (and water) is called respiration.

Living Environment Regents June 2006 Question 35 PDF Print E-mail
Reproduction and Development


Correct Answer: Option 4 The gene to produce protein X was passed from cell A to cells B and C.

Single-celled organisms reproduce asexually by mitotic cell division, in which the DNA is copied and allocated equally to two daughter cells. The genomes of the offsprings are the same as of the parent's genome. The gene expressing the protein X from parent is replicated to the offsprings.

Option 3 discusses endocytosis or the cellular uptake of macromolecules and particles by certain parts of the plasma membrane. Whenever a gene is ingested, it will be metabolized instead of being expressed.

Option 2 is incorrect. It may also be found in other organisms yet it is turned "off" because it is not essential to the other organisms. Therefore, protein X is not expressed in all organisms, making option 1 incorrect.

Living Environment Regents June 2006 Question 58 PDF Print E-mail
Reproduction and Development


Structure A is the placenta. The placenta's primary role is to ensure that oxygen is moved into the fetus' blood stream and carbon dioxide is carried away from the fetus - however the waste is not limited to oxygen and also includes cleaning out other waste which is produced by the fetus. In the same way that it ensures oxygen reaches the fetus, it also plays a role in ensuring that some nutrients are received.

The placenta is an extremely complex piece of biological equipment. It is a little bit like an artificial kidney, it allows the mother's blood and the fetus' to come into very close contact - but without ever mixing. This enables your blood to pass across nutrients and oxygen to the baby, and waste products like carbon dioxide to go back from fetus to mother. It acts as the lung, kidney and digestive system for the fetus.

The placenta also plays an important role in hormone production. Human chronic gonadotropin, or hCG is produced by the placenta. This hormone can be found in the fetus' blood stream as early as 10 days of pregnancy. This is of course not the only hormone which the placenta produces as it is also responsible for the production of estrogen and progesterone.

Living Environment Regents June 2006 Question 59 PDF Print E-mail
Reproduction and Development


The placenta also performs the important function of protecting the fetus for possible infection - however, it is not always able to distinguish between what is a good substance and what isn't - and this is why pregnant women are asked to avoid substances which may cause harm, such as caffeine, alcohol, herbal substances and drugs. Placenta does not hinder alcohol from entering the system of the fetus.

The alcohol crosses the placenta and reaches the fetus. The amniotic fluid surrounding the fetus will also contain alcohol. Prenatal alcohol exposure puts the fetus at risk for physical and mental damage. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) describes children who have a disorder or disability related to prenatal alcohol exposure. There are many disorders that fall within this spectrum, with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) being the most severe.


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