New York State Chemistry RegentsNew York State Earth Science Regents

Organization of Life
Living Environment Regents June 2006 Question 01 PDF Print E-mail


Correct Answer: Option 2, tissue

Tissues are made up of cells of similar structure and function; therefore, the tissue is the next level of organization after a cell. Examples of tissues include blood, nervous and bone, among others. Human tissues have 4 basic types: connective, epithelial, muscle, and nerve.

Option 1 is incorrect. A human is an example of an organism, the highest level of organization. Humans are made up of organ systems and can carry out all basic life processes. This means they can take in materials, release energy from food, release wastes, grow, respond to the environment, and reproduce.

Option 3 is incorrect because a stomach is just an example of an organ. Organs are made up of tissues that work together to perform a specific activity.

Option 4 is also incorrect because an organelle, like a nucleus, is only a part of a cell.
Living Environment Regents June 2006 Question 04 PDF Print E-mail


Correct Answer: Option 3 nucleus, which has chromosomes that contain many genes.

Genes is the basic unit of heredity in a living organism. They hold the information to build and maintain their cells and pass genetic traits to offspring. In general terms, a gene is a segment of nucleic acid that, taken as a whole, specifies a trait. Option 3 is correct because chromosomes are found in the "control center" of the cell-the nucleus. It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes.

Option 1 is incorrect. Ribosomes are complexes of RNA(ribonucleic acid) and protein that are found in all cells. Ribosomes do not contain chromosomes. The ribosome functions in the expression of the genetic code from nucleic acid into protein, in a process called translation.

Option 2 is incorrect. Chromosomes are made up of genes, not genes contain chromosomes.

Option 4 is incorrect. Chromosomes compose the nucleus yet it is not contained in genes.

Living Environment Regents June 2006 Question 06 PDF Print E-mail


CORRECT ANSWER: Option 2 simple sugars

Starch, a complex carbohydrate, is a polymer of glucose molecules. The potato plant converts glucose (a simple sugar or monosaccharide) to starch by a process called starch synthesis. Basically, many glucose molecules link up and form a long chain, which has new properties and is known as starch or amylose. The actual bonds between glucose molecules are formed through dehydration synthesis. This process literally means assembling by removing water. An atom of hydrogen (H) is removed from one of the glucans, and a hydroxyl group (OH) is removed from another. (The H and OH that were removed will react to form water, H2O.) The removal of the H and OH leaves free reactive sites that join together, linking the two glucans by a glycosidic bond to form a disaccharide (two sugars). Additional sugars are added to the chain by the same process to form the polysaccharide starch.

Option 1 is incorrect. Enzymes just catalyze the reactions in the synthesis of starch. An example of enzyme used in starch synthesis is ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), which catalyses the reaction of glucose-1-phosphate with ATP to form ADP-glucose (liberating pyrophosphate).

Option 3 and 4 are both incorrect. Amino acids and minerals are not simple sugars.

Living Environment Regents June 2006 Question 12 PDF Print E-mail


CORRECT ANSWER: Option 2 The shape of a protein molecule determines its function.

The function of a protein (except when it is serving as food) is absolutely dependent on its three-dimensional structure. A number of agents can disrupt this structure thus denaturing the protein which are as follows: changes in pH (alters electrostatic interactions between charged amino acids), changes in salt concentration (does the same), changes in temperature (higher temperatures reduce the strength of hydrogen bonds) and presence of reducing agents (break S-S bonds between cysteines). None of these agents breaks peptide bonds connecting the amino acids of the primary structure. Therefore, when a protein is denatured, it loses its function. For instance, a denatured enzyme ceases to function or a denatured antibody no longer can bind its antigen. Often when a protein has been lightly denatured and then is returned to normal physiological conditions, it spontaneously regains its function.

Option 1 is not always correct. There are 4 levels of protein structure organization. Primary Structure refers to the linear sequence of amino acids that make up the polypeptide chain. The secondary structure of protein molecules refers to the formation of a regular pattern of twists or kinks of the polypeptide chain.  Tertiary structure refers to the three dimensional globular structure formed by bending and twisting of the polypeptide chain. This process often means that the linear sequence of amino acids is folded into a compact globular structure. Quaternary structure refers to the fact that some proteins contain more than one polypeptide chain, adding an additional level of structural organization: the association of the polypeptide chains. Each polypeptide chain in the protein is called a subunit. Option 4 is also incorrect because simple sugars are different in structure from proteins so we cannot yield sugar from proteins. Instead, bonded proteins form proteins with different structure level.

Option 3 is not always correct. Not all proteins can be broken down to form energy.

Protein in the form of food can be broken down by our body to yield energy but not as efficient as carbohydrates.

Living Environment Regents June 2006 Question 13 PDF Print E-mail


Correct Answer: Option 1 reactions that are controlled by catalysts

A catalyst is a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction. The predominant biological catalyst of chemical reactions in the body are enzymes and ribosomes. In the absence of enzymes, chemical traffic through the pathways of metabolism would become hopelessly congested. Enzymes are made up of proteins, not nitrogenous bases similar to DNA. Therefore, option 4 is incorrect.

Option 2 is incorrect because enzymes are not concentrated in mitochondria. For example, there are enzymes in the plasma membrane of corneal endothelial cells.

Option 3 is incorrect because vacuoles are storage bodies of water and other organic compounds. Vacuoles do not produce catalysts.

Living Environment Regents June 2006 Question 19 PDF Print E-mail


Correct answer: Option 1

Digestion involves mixing food with digestive juices, moving it through the digestive tract, and breaking down large molecules of food into smaller molecules. Digestion begins in the mouth, when you chew and swallow, and is completed in the small intestine. The digested nutrients are absorbed through the intestinal walls and transported throughout the body. Most digested molecules of food, as well as water and minerals, are absorbed through the small intestine. Specialized cells allow absorbed materials to cross the mucosa into the blood, where they are carried off in the bloodstream (circulation) to other parts of the body for synthesis or further chemical change (through diffusion). For example, the digestible carbohydrates-starch and sugar-are broken into simpler molecules by enzymes in the saliva, in juice produced by the pancreas, and in the lining of the small intestine. Starch is digested in two steps. First, an enzyme in the saliva and pancreatic juice breaks the starch into molecules called maltose. Then an enzyme in the lining of the small intestine splits the maltose into glucose molecules that can be absorbed into the blood. Glucose is carried through the bloodstream to the liver, where it is stored or used to provide energy for the work of the body.

Living Environment Regents June 2006 Question 20 PDF Print E-mail


Correct Answer: Option 4 carbon dioxide from a mitochondrion carrying out respiration

The illustration showed is a mitochondrion with inner and outer membrane. The inner membrane encloses thee mitochondrial matrix and this is the location where respiration occurs. The arrows represent the ATP produced during respiration.

Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts, not in the mitochondrion. Energy produced in the process cannot be represented by arrows because it is the form of glucose. Therefore, options 2 and 3 are incorrect.

Carbon dioxide is not a form of energy, thus it cannot be represented by the arrows. Option 4 is also incorrect.

Living Environment Regents June 2006 Question 34 PDF Print E-mail


Correct Answer: Option 3 cell B to cell A because cell A is able to recognize signal 1.

Cell B releases signal 1 that is recognizable by cell A.

Option 1 is incorrect, because cell B is able to recognize signal 2, not signal 1.

Option 2 is incorrect, because cell A is able to recognize signal 1, not signal 2.

Option 4 is incorrect, because it is cell A that receives signal 1.

Living Environment Regents June 2006 Question 49 PDF Print E-mail


Correct Answer: Option 3 antibodies against usually harmless antigens.

An allergic reaction is the body's way of responding to an "invader." When the body senses a foreign substance, called an antigen, the immune system is triggered and releases harmless antibodies. The immune system normally protects the body from harmful agents such as bacteria and toxins. Its overreaction to a harmless substance (an allergen) is called a hypersensitivity reaction, or an allergic, reaction. An antigen (Ag) is a substance that prompts the generation of antibodies and can cause an immune response

Living Environment Regents June 2006 Question 53 PDF Print E-mail


Metabolism is the set of chemical reactions that occur in living organisms in order to maintain life. These processes allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments. One category of metabolism is catabolism, wherein the organic breaks down. An example of catabolism is the energy harvest in cellular respiration.

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