New York State Chemistry RegentsNew York State Earth Science Regents

NYS Living Environment Regents June 2006
Living Environment Regents June 2006 Question 01 PDF Print E-mail
Organization of Life


Correct Answer: Option 2, tissue

Tissues are made up of cells of similar structure and function; therefore, the tissue is the next level of organization after a cell. Examples of tissues include blood, nervous and bone, among others. Human tissues have 4 basic types: connective, epithelial, muscle, and nerve.

Option 1 is incorrect. A human is an example of an organism, the highest level of organization. Humans are made up of organ systems and can carry out all basic life processes. This means they can take in materials, release energy from food, release wastes, grow, respond to the environment, and reproduce.

Option 3 is incorrect because a stomach is just an example of an organ. Organs are made up of tissues that work together to perform a specific activity.

Option 4 is also incorrect because an organelle, like a nucleus, is only a part of a cell.
Living Environment Regents June 2006 Question 02 PDF Print E-mail
Evolution: Change Over Time


Correct Answer: Option 2 E & I

Species E and I both originated from species F. There are most likely more common shared characteristics (synapomorphies) between these two species than the other species given.

Species C originated from species H, while species D from G. Since they have different most recent ancestor, they are not as closely related as E & I. Thus, option 1 is incorrect. This is also the case of options 3.

Option 4 is also incorrect. Though species A is the remote ancestor of all the given species, there have been many diversion from the original characteristic before species F came to existence.

Living Environment Regents June 2006 Question 03 PDF Print E-mail


Correct Answer: Option 3 low concentration→ high concentration (ATP used)

Active transport is the mediated process of moving particles across a biological membrane against a concentration gradient. Active transport uses energy, unlike passive transport, which does not use any energy. ATP, a form or chemical energy, is needed for this process to take place. Indeed, this setup is an active transport. Since it uses chemical energy, it is termed as primary active transport. If electrochemical gradient was used in the process, it is called secondary active transport.

Option 1 is incorrect because no energy is needed to move particles from high concentration to low concentration. Since there is no energy or ATP (adenosine triphosphate) needed for the process to happen, it is a passive transport.

Option 2 is incorrect. Just like option 1, no energy or ATP was used in the process therefore it is a passive transport.

Option 4 is incorrect. ATP is needed in order to transport particles from low to high concentration.

Living Environment Regents June 2006 Question 04 PDF Print E-mail
Organization of Life


Correct Answer: Option 3 nucleus, which has chromosomes that contain many genes.

Genes is the basic unit of heredity in a living organism. They hold the information to build and maintain their cells and pass genetic traits to offspring. In general terms, a gene is a segment of nucleic acid that, taken as a whole, specifies a trait. Option 3 is correct because chromosomes are found in the "control center" of the cell-the nucleus. It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes.

Option 1 is incorrect. Ribosomes are complexes of RNA(ribonucleic acid) and protein that are found in all cells. Ribosomes do not contain chromosomes. The ribosome functions in the expression of the genetic code from nucleic acid into protein, in a process called translation.

Option 2 is incorrect. Chromosomes are made up of genes, not genes contain chromosomes.

Option 4 is incorrect. Chromosomes compose the nucleus yet it is not contained in genes.

Living Environment Regents June 2006 Question 05 PDF Print E-mail
Heredity and Genetics


CORRECT ANSWER: Option 1 different genes function in each type of cell.

Inside each cell are the genes, which give the cell information about how it is supposed to function. Genes are segments of DNA. Genes are turned on or off for cellular differentiation. For example, to produce the highly specialized nerve cells, only a fraction of the genes are expressed (through transcription with the aid of enzymes) to generate the specific structure and function of the cell.

Option 2 is not the best answer. Though it is true that nerve cells are amitotic, meaning they cannot reproduce, and liver cells can reproduce whenever there ii injury; it is not the main reason why the two types of cells are different in structure and function. It still depends on the genes that dictate the characteristics of the cells.

Option 3 is incorrect. The chromosome number is constant in all cells of an organism. For instance, humans have 46 chromosomes (44 are autosomal and the 2 are sex chromosomes)

Option 4 is incorrect. DNA is known as organism's genetic "fingerprint." Therefore, there is the same DNA found in different cells of the body.

Living Environment Regents June 2006 Question 06 PDF Print E-mail
Organization of Life


CORRECT ANSWER: Option 2 simple sugars

Starch, a complex carbohydrate, is a polymer of glucose molecules. The potato plant converts glucose (a simple sugar or monosaccharide) to starch by a process called starch synthesis. Basically, many glucose molecules link up and form a long chain, which has new properties and is known as starch or amylose. The actual bonds between glucose molecules are formed through dehydration synthesis. This process literally means assembling by removing water. An atom of hydrogen (H) is removed from one of the glucans, and a hydroxyl group (OH) is removed from another. (The H and OH that were removed will react to form water, H2O.) The removal of the H and OH leaves free reactive sites that join together, linking the two glucans by a glycosidic bond to form a disaccharide (two sugars). Additional sugars are added to the chain by the same process to form the polysaccharide starch.

Option 1 is incorrect. Enzymes just catalyze the reactions in the synthesis of starch. An example of enzyme used in starch synthesis is ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), which catalyses the reaction of glucose-1-phosphate with ATP to form ADP-glucose (liberating pyrophosphate).

Option 3 and 4 are both incorrect. Amino acids and minerals are not simple sugars.

Living Environment Regents June 2006 Question 07 PDF Print E-mail
Heredity and Genetics


Correct Answer: Option 1 specific sequences of bases in DNA in reproductive cells.

Before cell division occurs, the cell first has to replicate the chromosomes so each daughter cell can have a set. Each chromosome is one long molecule of DNA with specific sequences of nitrogenous bases and special proteins. The DNA of the parent molecule is replicated to form the DNA of the offspring.

Option 2 is incorrect.  The function of proteins during reproduction is to "turn off" the genes that are not needed in that cell. For example, while every cell in your body contains exactly the same genes, you don't need your eye-color gene operational in cells in your big toe, nor toenail-shape genes active in cells in your stomach.

Option 3 is incorrect. The role of carbohydrates in reproduction is still under speculation. There are studies that have shown that glycosylation (the systematic addition of carbohydrates to proteins or lipids) contributes to the reproduction process (e.g. interaction between the spermatozoa and the zona pellucida of oocyte); however, not directly in the transmission of hereditary traits.

Option 4 is incorrect. DNA is a polymer of monomers called nucleotides, each consisting of a pentose sugar (deoxyribose) and a phosphate group. Pentose is also a kind of sugar but it is not considered as starch.

Living Environment Regents June 2006 Question 08 PDF Print E-mail
Heredity and Genetics


Correct Answer: Option 3 gene alteration in gametes.

Option 1 is incorrect because in cloning, the genetic information of the parent is just the same with the offspring.

Options 2 and 4 are incorrect. Mitosis in the muscle cells and differentiation in nerve cells only happens from further growth and development of the body. These cannot be inherited by the following generation.

Gene alterations in the gametes will form new inheritable characteristics. Since the gamete of the parents unite during sexual reproduction, if ever there would be alterations, the resulting diploid zygote would have a different gene expression that can be carried out to the next generations.

Living Environment Regents June 2006 Question 09 PDF Print E-mail
Heredity and Genetics


Correct Answer: Option 1 mutation and gene recombination.

Mutation refers to the changes to the nucleotide sequence of the genetic material of an organism. Since there is a change in the genetic information of the species, this can further cause evolution of the species. On the other hand, genetic recombination is the process wherein a strand of DNA is broken and joined to a different DNA molecule. This usually occurs during meiosis as chromosomal crossover between paired chromosomes. This leads to offspring with different combination of genes from their parents.

Mitosis involves the distribution of identical DNA to two daughter cells. Its function is primarily for growth and development, not for variations in the succeeding generations of species. Natural selection is the differential success in reproduction caused by the adaptation of organisms to their environment. Option 2 is incorrect because not both mitosis and natural selection results to variation (only natural selection causes variation).

Extinction cannot cause variation because the genetic information of an extinct species also disappears with it. Gene replacement can cause a change in the characteristics of a species. Therefore, only gene replacement is correct, making option 3 invalid.

Selection would limit the variations that could influence the evolution of species.  Selective breeding is in contrast with natural selection, according to Charles Darwin. Thus, option 4 is incorrect.

Living Environment Regents June 2006 Question 10 PDF Print E-mail


Correct Answer: Option 3 hide from predators.

Stick insects have chromatic adaptations to hide from insectivorous animals like moles and robins. In this way, they have less probability of being seen by these predators.

Option 1 is incorrect because stick insects are not competing with all birds. Stick insects are herbivores, while birds are herbivores or carnivores. They only compete with herbivorous birds but not with the birds with different mode of nutrition.

Option 2 is incorrect because stick insects are not plants, they just look like plants in order to adapt to their environment. This is called chromatic adaptation wherein pigment granules migrate in their epidermis. Since stick insects are not plants, they cannot make their own food.

Option 4 is incorrect. Molecular adaptation is the common way used by insects to avoid toxic waste materials (e.g. leaf beetles).

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