New York State Chemistry RegentsNew York State Earth Science Regents

NYS Living Environment Regents June 2004
Living Environment Regents June 2004 Question 01 PDF Print E-mail
Heredity and Genetics


Correct Answer: (2) contain identical genes

Cloning is the process of making a lineage of genetically identical individuals. This naturally occurs in bacteria, plants and some insects that reproduce asexually.

Incorrect Answers:

Clones have the same genotype. Appearance and behavior are usually affected by the environment (phenotype) and thus, it is not necessary that clones would have identical appearance and behavior.

Mutation is the change in the DNA sequence of an individual. Since clones have identical DNA, mutation is absent.

Enzymes are proteins which are produced by the dictation of the genes. Clones have the same genes, then same enzymes will be formed.

Living Environment Regents June 2004 Question 02 PDF Print E-mail
Heredity and Genetics


Correct Answer: (2) A theory is an assumption made by scientists and implies a lack of certainty.

Theory is an idea or explanation which has not yet been proved to be correct. According to the gene-chromosome theory, genes are segments of DNA positioned on chromosomes in homologous pairs. This theory is not yet proven, however, it is used as an assumption in studying genetics.

Living Environment Regents June 2004 Question 03 PDF Print E-mail
Evolution: Change Over Time


Correct Answer: (1) digestive and circulatory

In human digestive system, the fats in foods are emulsified with digestive secretions containing lipase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes at least part of the glycerides. The glycerol, partial glycerol esters, fatty acids, and some glycerides are then absorbed through the intestine and are at least partly recombined to produce glycerides and phospholipids. The fat, in the form of droplets, is transported in the blood to points of utilization or storage.

Living Environment Regents June 2004 Question 04 PDF Print E-mail
Heredity and Genetics


Correct Answer: (3) Genes are found on chromosomes. Chromosomes are found in nuclei.

Nucleus (plural, nuclei) is the chromosome-containing organelle of a eukaryotic cell. Chromosome is a thread-like association of genes in the nucleus of all eukaryotic cells and most visible during mitosis and meiosis. Chromosomes consist of DNA and protein. Gene is one of the many discrete hereditary information located on the chromosomes and consisting of DNA.

Living Environment Regents June 2004 Question 05 PDF Print E-mail


Correct Answer: (2) Organism 3 helps recycle materials.

Organism 3 is a mushroom (a fungus) which is a decomposer. Decomposers re organisms that absorb nutrients from nonliving organic materials such as corpses, fallen plant material and the wastes of living organism, and transform them into inorganic forms

Incorrect Answers:

Organism 2 is a grass, which is autotrophic. Autotrophs obtain organic food molecules without eating organisms. They use energy from the sun of from the oxidation of inorganic substances to make organic molecules from inorganic ones.

Organism 4 is a grasshopper. It feeds on plants, therefore it is heterotrophic. Heterotrophs obtain organic food molecules by eating other organism or their by-products.

Organism 5 is a rat, while organism 1 is a snake. Rats cannot eat snakes, but snakes can eat rats to obtain energy.

Living Environment Regents June 2004 Question 06 PDF Print E-mail
Organization of Life


Correct Answer: (4) ribosomes

Translation is the process wherein the messenger RNA becomes protein. Translation begins the starting end of the mRNA strand attaches to a ribosome. Ribosome is a cell organelle constructed in the nucleolus (a part of the nucleus), consisting of two subunits and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm.

Incorrect Answers:

Cell membrane or plasma membrane is the membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as selective barrier, thereby regulating the cell's chemical composition.

Chloroplast is an organelle found only in plants and photosynthetic protests that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water.

Mitochondrion (plural, mitochondria) is an organelle in eukaryotic cells that serves as the site of cellular respiration.

Living Environment Regents June 2004 Question 07 PDF Print E-mail
Organization of Life


Correct Answer: (3) the digestion of minerals

This process is particularly called nitrogen fixation, wherein the bacteria degrade organic matter, releasing fixed nitrogen for reuse by other organisms.

Incorrect Answers:

Homeostasis refers to the body's mechanism to maintain a constant environment.

During photosynthesis, carbon dioxide and water are converted into glucose and water by the use of solar energy.

Living Environment Regents June 2004 Question 08 PDF Print E-mail
Heredity and Genetics


Correct Answer: (3) The expression of gene A varies with the environment.

The expression of gene A was affected by light. When the organism with gene A was exposed to light, the final appearance was green. On the other hand, when it was in the dark, the final appearance was white.

Incorrect Answers:

Based on the table, the expression of gene B was not affected by the environmental condition. Whether the organism with gene B was exposed to light or darkness, the final appearances were the same.

Living Environment Regents June 2004 Question 09 PDF Print E-mail
Heredity and Genetics


Correct Answer: (1) a sequence of paired bases

DNA is composed of nitrogenous bases paired by hydrogen bonds. These bases have specific pairing system, wherein Adenine and Thymine can only bond with each other, while Cytosine and Guanine pair with each other.

Living Environment Regents June 2004 Question 10 PDF Print E-mail
Heredity and Genetics


Correct Answer: (2) different parts of an individual's DNA are used to direct the synthesis of different proteins in different types of cells.

The DNA contains codons that code for amino acids to be produces during translation or protein synthesis. During cell differentiation, the proteins formed will form into different cells with particular structure based on their functions.

Incorrect Answer:

Mutation is the change in the DNA sequence. Formation of different cells is not always caused by mutation. The difference of structure and function of beta and acinar cells are due to different expression of genes during cell differentiation.

Homeostasis refers to the body's mechanism to maintain a stable and constant environment.

Both genes for acinar and beta cells are contributed by the same parents. During fertilization, the genes of the parents are combined.
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