New York State Chemistry RegentsNew York State Earth Science Regents

 
Reproduction and Development
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Reproduction and Development Question 1 PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 01 July 2009 11:57

Which characteristic of sexual reproduction has specifically favored the survival of animals that live on land?

A) Fusion of gametes in the outside environment

B) Male gametes that may be carried by the wind

C) Fertilization within the body of the female

D) Female gametes that develop within ovaries

Correct Answer: Option C - Fertilization within the body of the female

Sexual reproduction mixes the genes of each parent by splitting, breaking and blending chromosomes (the strands that contain DNA) during the creation of each sperm and egg. When the sperm and the egg combine, some genes from the male parent and some genes from the female parent are blended randomly, creating a unique mix of alleles in their offspring. The union of male and female gametes (reproductive cells) takes place, during the process of sexual reproduction to form a zygote. It involves the fusion of the gametic nuclei (karyogamy) and cytoplasm (plasmogamy). As each gamete contains only half the correct number of chromosomes, fertilization and zygote formation results in a cell with the full complement of chromosomes, half of which are derived from each of the parents. In animals the process involves fusion of the nuclei of a spermatozoan and an ovum. In most aquatic animals (e.g. fish) this takes place in the surrounding water, into which the gametes are shed. Among most terrestrial animals (e.g. insects, many mammals) fertilization occurs in the body of the female, into which the sperms are introduced.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 01 July 2009 11:59
 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Reproduction and Development Question 2 PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 01 July 2009 11:54
Which structures are not involved in asexual reproduction?

A) Centromeres

B) Spindles

C) Chromosomes

D) Setae

Correct Answer: Option D – Setae

Seta (plural: setae) is a biological term derived from the Latin word for "bristle". It refers to a number of different bristle- or hair-like structures on living organisms.

Incorrect Options

A centromere is a region of DNA typically found near the middle of a chromosome where two identical sister chromatids come in contact. It is involved in cell division as the point of mitotic spindle.

In cell biology, the spindle apparatus (also called spindle fibers) is the structure that separates the chromosomes into the daughter cells during cell division. It is part of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. Depending on the type of cell division, it is also referred to as the mitotic spindle during mitosis and the meiotic spindle during meiosis.

A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and protein that is found in cells. A chromosome is a single piece of coiled DNA containing many genes, regulatory elements and other nucleotide sequences. Chromosomes also contain DNA-bound proteins, which serve to package the DNA and control its functions

Last Updated on Wednesday, 01 July 2009 12:02
 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Reproduction and Development Question 3 PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 01 July 2009 11:53

During mitosis, a double-stranded chromosome is attached to a spindle fiber at the

A) Centriole

B) Centrosome

C) Cell plate

D) Centromere

Correct Answer: Option D – Centromere

A centromere is a region of DNA typically found near the middle of a chromosome where two identical sister chromatids come in contact. It is involved in cell division as the point of mitotic spindle.

Incorrect Options

A centriole is a barrel-shaped organelle found in most animal eukaryotic cells, though absent in higher plants and most fungi. The walls of each centriole are usually composed of nine triplets of microtubules

The centrosome is an organelle that serves as the main microtubule organizing center (MTOC) of the animal cell as well as a regulator of cell-cycle progression.

A disc like structure in the plane of the equator of the spindle that separates the two sets of chromosomes during cytokinesis; also involved in the formation of cell wall between the two daughter cells following cell division.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 01 July 2009 12:02
 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Reproduction and Development Question 4 PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 01 July 2009 11:52

Many unicellular organisms reproduce by the process of

A) Fission

B) Regeneration

C) Nondisjunction

D) Ovulation

Correct Answer: Option A – Fission

Binary fission is a type of asexual reproduction whereby a cell (such as an Ameba) replicates its DNA and splits its DNA and cytoplasm equally.

Incorrect Options

Regeneration is also a type of asexual reproduction but is performed by simple multicellular animals such as lobsters and flatworms.

Ovulation is the release of an egg to be used in sexual reproduction and nondisjunction is when the chromosomes split unequally in sexual reproduction.

 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Reproduction and Development Question 5 PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 01 July 2009 11:51

Which reproductive adaptation is characteristic of most terrestrial vertebrates but not of most aquatic vertebrates?

A) External fertilization

B) Motile gametes

C) Internal fertilization

D) External development

Correct Answer: Option C – Internal fertilization

Most vertebrate animals that live on land have an adaptation that allows internal fertilization, whereby the male penis inserts sperm directly in the female body. This is advantageous since sperm need liquid to swim and the moist female reproductive tract provides this. Aquatic vertebrate animals live in water so sperm can easily be deposited in the water and swim to the female reproductive tract.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 01 July 2009 12:04
 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Reproduction and Development Question 6 PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 01 July 2009 11:50

Which statement best describes the sperm cells of an animal that are produced from primary sex cells?

A) They contain the monoploid number of chromosomes.

B) They are diploid as a result of mitotic division.

C) They are genetically identical to the primary sex cells.

D) They are larger than egg cells.

Correct Answer: Option A – They contain the monoploid number of chromosomes

When a primary sex cell undergoes meiosis, D unique monoploid cells are formed. Sperm cells are much smaller than egg cells, although they both go through the process of meiosis, because all D sperm cells divide equally and are viable, while egg cells divide unequally, leaving the smaller polar bodies to die.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 01 July 2009 12:04
 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Reproduction and Development Question 7 PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 01 July 2009 11:48

Which statement best explains why invertebrates regenerate lost tissue more readily than most vertebrates do?

A) They contain specialized cells that produce the hormones necessary for this process.

B) Cells of invertebrates exhibit a higher degree of uncontrolled cell division than vertebrate cells do.

C) They reproduce asexually, but vertebrate animals reproduce sexually.

D) They have more undifferentiated cells than vertebrate animals have.

Correct Answer: Option D - They have more undifferentiated cells than vertebrate animals have.

Invertebrates, animals without a backbone such as an earthworm, are simpler than vertebrates such as a human. Therefore, their cells are not as complex and they may be able to regenerate or grow lost body parts easier than a more complex animal. Regeneration of parts or, in some cases, nearly the entire body of an organism from a part, is more common than one might think. Many protists like the amoeba that have been cut in half can grow back into a complete organism so long as enough of the nuclear material is undamaged. Severed cell parts, such as flagella, can also be regrown in protists. New plants can be grown from cuttings, and plants can often be regenerated from a mass of fully differentiated cells (such as a section of a carrot root), which, if isolated in a suitable environment, turn into a mass of undifferentiated cells that develop into a fully differentiated organism. The capacity for regeneration varies widely in animals, with some able to regenerate whole limbs and others not, but the capacity is reduced significantly in more complex animals. Certain simple invertebrates like the hydra are always regenerating themselves. If, cut into tiny pieces that are then mixed up, the pieces can reorganize themselves and grow back into a complete organism. Flatworms have the capacity to regenerate themselves from only a small mass of cells. In many animals, these regenerated body parts are not as large as the originals but are usually sufficient to be functional. Many higher animals such as mammals regularly regenerate certain tissues such as hair and skin and portions of others such as bone, but most tissues cannot be regenerated.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 01 July 2009 12:04
 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Reproduction and Development Question 8 PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 01 July 2009 11:45

Which phrases best identify characteristics of asexual reproduction?

A) One parent, union of gametes, offspring similar to but not genetically identical to the parent

B) One parent, no union of gametes, offspring genetically identical to parents

C) Two parents, union of gametes, offspring similar to but not genetically identical to parents

D) Two parents, no union of gametes, offspring genetically identical to parents

Correct Answer: Option B - One parent, no union of gametes, offspring genetically identical to parents

Asexual reproduction is reproduction which does not involve meiosis, ploidy reduction, or fertilization. Only one parent is involved in asexual reproduction. A more stringent definition is agamogenesis which refers to reproduction without the fusion of gametes. Asexual reproduction is the primary form of reproduction for single-celled organisms such the archaea, bacteria, and protists. Many plants and fungi reproduce asexually as well. While all prokaryotes reproduce asexually (without the formation and fusion of gametes), mechanisms for lateral gene transfer such as conjugation, transformation and transduction are sometimes likened to sexual reproduction. The offspring are typically genetically similar to their parent, with as broad a range as that individual receives from one parent. The lack of genetic recombination results in fewer genetic alternatives than with sexual reproduction. Many forms of asexual reproduction, for example budding or fragmentation produce an exact replica of the parent.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 01 July 2009 12:05
 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Reproduction and Development Question 9 PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 01 July 2009 11:44

As a fertilized frog egg develops into an embryo, it undergoes

A) One meiotic cell division, only

B) Many meiotic cell divisions

C) One mitotic cell division, only

D) Many mitotic cell divisions

Correct Answer: Option D – Many mitotic cell divisions

A fertilized frog egg has already gone through the process of meiosis, in the formation of the egg and sperm that united to form it. Once this union forms during fertilization, the cell undergoes many mitotic cell divisions to grow into a frog.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 01 July 2009 12:05
 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Reproduction and Development Question 10 PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 01 July 2009 11:43

In humans, what is the ratio of the number of gametes produced from one male primary sex cell to the number of gametes produced from one female primary sex cell?

(1) 4:1

(2) 1:3

(3) 1:4

(4) 3:1

Correct Answer: Option A – 4:1

Four viable sperm cells are produced from one primary sex cell, whereby only one viable egg cell is produced, due to the unequal division of cytoplasm and the formation of polar bodies, which wither and die.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 01 July 2009 12:06
 
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