New York State Chemistry RegentsNew York State Earth Science Regents

 
Human Impact on the Environment
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Human Impact On the Environment Question 1 PDF Print E-mail
Sunday, 28 June 2009 07:37

Deforestation would most immediately result in

A) Disappearance of native species

B) Industrialization of an area

C) Global warming

D) The depletion of the ozone shield

Correct Answer: Option A - Disappearance of native species

Deforestation is Process of clearing forests. Rates of deforestation are particularly high in the tropics, where the poor quality of the soil has led to the practice of routine clear-cutting to make new soil available for agricultural use. Deforestation can lead to erosion, drought, loss of biodiversity through extinction of plant and animal species, and increased atmospheric carbon dioxide.

Incorrect Options

Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of the Earth's near-surface air.

Industrialization is the process of social and economic change whereby a human group is transformed from a pre-industrial society into an industrial one. It is a part of a wider modernization process, where social change and economic development are closely related with technological innovation, particularly with the development of large-scale energy and metallurgy production.

The distribution of ozone in the stratosphere is a function of altitude, latitude and season. It is determined by photochemical and transport processes. The ozone layer is located between A0 and 50 km above the Earth's surface and contains 90% of all stratospheric ozone. Under normal conditions, stratospheric ozone is formed by a photochemical reaction between oxygen molecules, oxygen atoms and solar radiation. A depletion of the ozone layer will increase the UV-radiation at ground level. Increasing doses of UV-B may cause skin cancer, eye cataracts, damage to the immune system in animals as well as human beings, and have an adverse impact on plant growth.

Last Updated on Thursday, 02 July 2009 07:21
 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Human Impact On the Environment Question 2 PDF Print E-mail
Sunday, 28 June 2009 11:28

If excessive amounts of hot water are discharged into a lake, the immediate result will most likely be

A) Increase in the sewage content of the lake

B) Decrease in the amount of dissolved oxygen in the lake

C) Increase in the amount of PCB pollution in the lake

D) Decrease in the amount of phospates in the lake

Correct Answer: Option B – Decrease in the amount of dissolved oxygen in the lake

Thermal pollution is usually associated with increases of water temperatures in a stream, lake, or ocean due to the discharge of heated water from industrial processes, such as the generation of electricity. Increases in ambient water temperature also occur in streams where shading vegetation along the banks is removed or where sediments have made the water more turbid. Both of these effects allow more energy from the sun to be absorbed by the water and thereby increase its temperature. Cold water contains more oxygen than hot water so increases in temperature also decrease the oxygen-carrying capacity of water. In addition, raising the water temperature increases the decomposition rate of organic matter in water, which also depletes dissolved oxygen. These decreases in the oxygen content of the water occur at the same time that the metabolic rates of the aquatic organisms, which are dependent on a sufficient oxygen supply, are rising because of the increasing temperature.

Based on above argument and the information provided in the question, the other options are incorrect.

Last Updated on Thursday, 02 July 2009 07:22
 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Human Impact On the Environment Question 3 PDF Print E-mail
Sunday, 28 June 2009 11:30

The creation of wildlife refuges and the enforcement of game laws are conservation measures that promote increased

A) Use of biological controls

B) Use of biocides

C) Preservation of species

D) Exploitation of species

Correct Answer: Option C – Preservation of species

One positive thing humans are doing is trying to preserve species that may be endangered. Wildlife refuges (where hunting is not allowed) and game laws (that limit the number of organisms hunted) have both helped.

Incorrect Options

biocide is a chemical substance capable of killing living organisms, usually in a selective way. Biocides are commonly used in medicine, agriculture, forestry, and in industry where they prevent the fouling of water and oil pipelines. Some substances used as biocides are also employed as anti-fouling agents or disinfectants under other circumstances: chlorine, for example, is used as a short-life biocide in industrial water treatment but as a disinfectant in swimming pools.

Biological control is an environmentally sound and effective means of reducing or mitigating pests and pest effects through the use of natural enemies.

Last Updated on Thursday, 02 July 2009 07:22
 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Human Impact On the Environment Question 4 PDF Print E-mail
Sunday, 28 June 2009 11:31

An example of a biological control against insects is the use of

A) Herbicides

B) Wildlife refuges

C) Pesticides

D) Sex hormones

Correct Answer: Option D – Sex Hormones

Attracting insects with their own sex hormones, or pheromones, and then trapping them is an example of a biological control because of use of a natural mechanism of attracting them. sex pheromones indicate the availability of the female for breeding. Male animals may also emit pheromones that convey information about their species and genotype. Traps containing pheromones are used by farmers to detect and monitor insect population in orchards.

Incorrect Options

A herbicide is substance used to kill unwanted plants. Selective herbicides kill specific targets while leaving the desired crop relatively unharmed. Some of these act by interfering with the growth of the weed and are often synthetic "imitations" of plant hormones. Herbicides used to clear waste ground, industrial sites, railways and railway embankments are non-selective and kill all plant material with which they come into contact.

A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used to kill a pest. A pesticide may be a chemical substance, biological agent (such as a virus or bacteria), antimicrobial, disinfectant or device used against any pest. Pests include insects, plant pathogens, weeds, molluscs, birds, mammals, fish, nematodes etc

wildlife refuge, also called a wildlife sanctuary, may be a naturally-occurring sanctuary, such as an island, that provides protection for species from hunting, predation or competition, or it may refer to a protected area, a geographic territory within which wildlife is protected. Such wildlife refuges are generally officially designated territories, created by government legislation, though the land itself may be publicly or privately owned.

Last Updated on Thursday, 02 July 2009 07:22
 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Human Impact On the Environment Question 5 PDF Print E-mail
Sunday, 28 June 2009 11:33

In some areas, foresters plant one tree for every tree they cut. This activity is an example of

A) Lack of management of nonrenewable natural resources

B) A good conservation practice for nonrenewable natural resources

C) A good conservation practice for renewable natural resources

D) Lack of concern for renewable natural resources

Correct Answer: Option C - A good conservation practice for renewable natural resources

Trees are also very important for us as a renewable resource. Trees are a natural resource that can be renewed - by the planting of trees - replacing the trees that are harvested for use by people. We depend on forest products for things like the wood we burn for heat and the wood we use to make houses and furniture.

Incorrect Options

Based on the above arguments, the other options are incorrect.

Last Updated on Thursday, 02 July 2009 07:23
 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Human Impact On the Environment Question 6 PDF Print E-mail
Sunday, 28 June 2009 11:34

Toxic chemicals called PCBs, produced as a result of manufacturing processes, were dumped into the Hudson River. What was most likely a result of this action on fish in the Hudson River?

A) Some fish became unfit to eat.

B) The fish populations increased.

C) The carrying capacity for fish increased in the river. 

D) Thermal pollution of the river increased, decreasing the fish population.

Correct Answer: Option A - Some fish became unfit to eat.

PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) are a colorless, odorless oils found in the sediments of the river. The fishes consume these chemicals which in turn affect the immune system of the body and the brain

Incorrect Options

Since PCBs are toxic substances, there is no way that the population of the fishes will increase. Hence the other options are also incorrect.

Last Updated on Thursday, 02 July 2009 07:23
 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Human Impact On the Environment Question 7 PDF Print E-mail
Sunday, 28 June 2009 11:35

Human impact on the environment is often more dramatic than the impact of  most other living things because humans have a greater

A) Ability to adapt to change

B) Need for water

C) Need for food

D) Ability to alter the environment

Correct Answer: Option D - Ability to alter the environment

Sociality and intelligence are the two basic interacting features that marked human evolution, which mutually enhanced control over the environment. Interactions between humans and the environment also gave rise to technological developments leading to agriculture and animal domestication, innovations that made possible the accumulation of energy-food surpluses and removed the most important restraint on demographic increase in hunter–gatherer communities. In the last two centuries, increase in life expectancy at birth, exploitation of resources and control of humans over the environment have contributed to a dramatic demographic increase.

Incorrect Options

Based on the above argument, the other options are incorrect.

Last Updated on Thursday, 02 July 2009 07:24
 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Human Impact On the Environment Question 8 PDF Print E-mail
Sunday, 28 June 2009 11:36

Which factor is not considered by ecologists when they evaluate the impact of human activities on an ecosystem?

A) Amount of energy released from the Sun

B) Quality of the atmosphere

C) Degree of biodiversity

D) Location of power plants

Correct Answer: Option A - Amount of energy released from the Sun

Every minute enough of the Sun's energy reaches the Earth's surface to meet the world's energy demands for a whole year. Combine this powerful energy source (the very source of life for our planet) with other readily available energy sources like wind, moving water and heat from within the Earth (geothermal heat),

Incorrect Options

An ecosystem, by definition is composed of the environment, the surrounding atmosphere, the biodiversity. Based on this definition, the other options are incorrect.

When evaluating the impact on an ecosystem, the location of industries and power plants will be taken into account.

Last Updated on Thursday, 02 July 2009 07:24
 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Human Impact On the Environment Question 9 PDF Print E-mail
Sunday, 28 June 2009 11:37

Which human activity has probably contributed most to the acidification of lakes in the Adirondack region?

A) Passing environmental protection laws

B) Establishing reforestation projects in lumbered areas

C) Burning fossil fuels that produce air pollutants containing sulfur and nitrogen

D) Using pesticides for the control of insects that feed on trees

Correct Answer: Option C - Burning fossil fuels that produce air pollutants containing sulfur and nitrogen

Adirondacks has been affected by acid deposition, eliminating fish and many other aquatic species. Acid rain is a by-product of our industrialized society. Air pollution combines with water in the atmosphere and falls to the earth as rain or snow. The soil and bedrock in these areas are not able to counteract the acid in the rain and snow. Consequently, although most of the resource is healthy, some rivers and lakes in these areas became acidified.

Incorrect Options

The other options mentioned do not contribute to polluting the atmosphere, which is why they are incorrect.

Last Updated on Thursday, 02 July 2009 07:24
 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Human Impact On the Environment Question 10 PDF Print E-mail
Sunday, 28 June 2009 11:38

Chittenango Falls State Park in central New York State is the only known habitat for an endangered species of aquatic snail. Contamination of its water supply and reduction of its habitat have threatened the future of this snail. Which step could be taken to protect this species of snail?

A) Banning human activities that damaged the habitat

B) Transferring the snail to a terrestrial environment

C) Crossbreeding the snail with another species

D) Introducing a new snail predator into the habitat

Correct Answer: Option A - Banning human activities that damaged the habitat

Contamination of water always happens due to the presence of human activity like industrialization, polluting water by disposing waste etc. Hence banning human activity is the best solution for preserving the habitat.

Incorrect Options

The other options are incorrect because it is not advisable to move the snail from its natural habitat. also cross breeding it with other specifies will not protect its extinction. The best method to prevent the extinction of species is to prevent the habitat and the environments from getting polluted.

Last Updated on Thursday, 02 July 2009 07:25
 
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