New York State Chemistry RegentsNew York State Earth Science Regents

 
Heredity and Genetics
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Heredity and Genetics Question 1 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 26 June 2009 10:45
When a person’s limbs are being X-rayed other parts are covered with lead blanket to prevent

A) Changes in glucose structure

B) Decrease in cell size

C) Changes in DNA molecules

D) Loss of hair

Correct Answer: Option C – Changes in DNA molecules

X-radiation (composed of X-rays) is a form of electromagnetic radiation. X-rays have a wavelength in the range of A0 to 0.0A nanometers. X-rays are primarily used for diagnostic radiography and crystallography. As a result, the term X-ray is metonymically used to refer to a radiographic image produced using this method. X-rays can be dangerous.

Too much radiation at one body site can cause skin conditions resembling severe burns or local cancers. If excess radiation strikes the gonads (ovaries or testicles),it can cause mutations in the genes, which in turn, may mean deformities in the patient's descendants.

Hence, option C is the correct answer.

Exposure to X-rays does not cause changes in glucose structure, decrease in cell size or loss of hair. Hence, options A, B and D are incorrect.

Last Updated on Thursday, 02 July 2009 12:51
 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Heredity and Genetics Question 2 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 26 June 2009 10:47

One molecule of DNA is a polymer composed of

A) Fatty Acids

B) Amino Acids

C) Nucleotides

D) Sugar

Correct Answer: Option C - Nucleotides

DNA is composed of nucleotides which are linear and contain a phosphate group, a five carbon sugar called deoxyribose and a nitrogenous base. Hence, option C is the correct answer.

Fatty Acids are one of many molecules that are long chains of lipid-carboxylic acid found in fats and oils and in cell membranes as a component of phospholipids and glycolipids. Carboxylic acid is an organic acid containing the functional group -COOH. Hence, option A is incorrect.

Amino Acids are building blocks of proteins and act as intermediates in metabolism. Hence, option B is incorrect.

Sugars are elements of food which when digested provide energy to the body. Hence, option D is incorrect.

Last Updated on Thursday, 02 July 2009 12:51
 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Heredity and Genetics Question 3 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 26 June 2009 10:49

Sexual reproduction of which parents will produce an offspring with the blood group O?

A) AB x OO

B) AO x BB

C) AA x BO

D) AO x BO

Correct Answer: Option D – AO x BO

The blood group O will be the combination OO, which is possible only with the pairing of AO and BO.

Hence, option D is the correct answer.

The combination of AB and OO will produce offspring with AO, or BO. Hence, option A is incorrect.

The combination of AO and BB will produce offspring with AB, or BO. Hence, option B is incorrect.

The combination of AA and BO will produce offspring with AO, or AB. Hence, option C is incorrect.

Last Updated on Thursday, 02 July 2009 12:52
 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Heredity and Genetics Question 4 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 26 June 2009 10:50

Chromosomes occur as homologous pairs in

A) A zygote

B) A gamete

C) egg cell

D) sperm cell

Correct Answer: Option A – A Zygote

A zygote is the fertilized egg formed by the combination of B gametes (sperm and egg cells). Each gamete provides the zygote half of the genetic information. This genetic material completes the new cell formed called zygote with homologous pairs. Hence, option A is correct.

A gamete is a cell providing half of the genetic material for the formation of a zygote in which chromosomes do not occur as homologous pairs. Hence, option B is incorrect.

Egg and sperm cells are gametes which have half of the genetic material. Hence, options C and D are incorrect.

Last Updated on Thursday, 02 July 2009 12:52
 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Heredity and Genetics Question 5 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 26 June 2009 10:52

How many chromosomes do human beings have?

A) 22 pairs

B) 38 pairs

C) 23 pairs

D) 21 pairs

Correct Answer: Option C – 23 pairs

A Chromosome is a long DNA molecule and associated proteins that carry portions of the heredity information of an organism. Human Beings have 21 homologous pairs chromosomes totaling to 46 chromosomes, divided into 22 pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes.

Hence, option C is correct.

Last Updated on Thursday, 08 April 2010 02:21
 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Heredity and Genetics Question 6 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 26 June 2009 10:53

Name the process which helps in the formation of B daughter nuclei cantaining the same genetic information as the parent.

A) Mitosis

B) Meiosis

C) Fertilization

D) Synapsis

Correct Answer: Option A – Mitosis

Mitosis is nuclear division plus cytokinesis, and produces two identical daughter cells during prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Hence, option A is the correct answer.

Meiosis is the type of cell division by which gametes (eggs and sperm) are produced. Meiosis involves a reduction in the amount of genetic material. Hence, option B is incorrect.

Fertilization is the process of fusion of gametes to produce an embryo which then grows into an organism. Hence, option C is incorrect.

Synapsis is the pairing of two homologous chromosomes that occurs during meiosis. It is a form of chromosomal crossover which takes place during prophase I. Hence, option D is incorrect.

Last Updated on Thursday, 02 July 2009 12:53
 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Heredity and Genetics Question 7 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 26 June 2009 10:55

Which of the following series of phases, best identify characteristics of Asexual reproduction?

A) One parent, union of gametes, offspring similar to but not genetically identical to the parent.

B) One parent, no union of gametes, offspring genetically identical to parent.

C) Two parents, union of gametes, offspring similar to but not genetically identical to parents.

D) Two parents, no union of gametes, offspring genetically identical to parents.

Correct Answer: Option B - One parent, no union of gametes, offspring genetically identical to parent.

Asexual reproduction leads one parent to split by the process of mitosis leading to the formation of offspring genetically identical to the parent. Hence, option B is the correct answer.

When there is only one parent there is no union of gametes. Hence, option A is incorrect.

When two parents are united offspring formed is genetically identical to parents. Hence, option C is incorrect.

When two parents are involved there is union of gametes. Hence, option D is incorrect.

Last Updated on Thursday, 02 July 2009 12:58
 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Heredity and Genetics Question 8 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 26 June 2009 14:25

A certain mutant bacterial cell cannot produce substance X. The mutation was most likely the result of change in the

A) Structure of cell membrane

B) Gene that codes for a specific protein

C) Amino acid sequence of DNA

D) Ability of DNA to replicate

Correct Answer: Option B – Gene that codes for a specific protein

Only a change in the gene that codes for a specific protein if altered will disable the production of substance X. Hence, option B is the correct answer.

Change in cell membrane, amino acid sequence of DNA or the ability of DNA to replicate cannot disable the mutant bacterial cell from producing a substance X. Hence, options A, C and D are incorrect.

Last Updated on Thursday, 02 July 2009 12:54
 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Heredity and Genetics Question 9 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 26 June 2009 14:31

Choose a statement that describes the result of some of the processes involved in genetic engineering

A) The processes are necessary for normal gamete formation.

B) The processes provide energy for mitosis and meiosis.

C) The processes alter the arrangement of hereditary material.

D) The processes reduce variation in organisms which produce asexually.

Correct Answer: Option C - The processes alter the arrangement of hereditary material.

Genetic engineering is different from traditional breeding, where the organism's genes are manipulated indirectly. Genetic engineering uses the techniques of molecular cloning and transformation to alter the structure and characteristics of genes directly. Hence, option C is correct.

Genetic engineering is not involved in gamete formation or provision of energy for mitosis and meiosis or reduction in variation of organisms which produce asexually.

Hence, options A, B and D are incorrect.

Last Updated on Thursday, 02 July 2009 12:55
 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Heredity and Genetics Question 10 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 26 June 2009 14:32

Which element of a cell helps a parent to transfer the genetic information to the offspring?

A) Cell Membrane

B) Cytoplasm

C) DNA

D) Mitochondria

Correct Answer: Option C – DNA

DNA provides the set of coded instructions required by every organism for specifying its traits. Hence, the DNA molecule provides for a reliable way for parents to pass their genetic code from one generation to the next.

Cell Membrane is the outer cover of the cell and does not help in transmitting genetic information. Hence, option A is incorrect.

Cytoplasm is a substance that fills the cell. Hence, option B is also incorrect.

Mitochondria are the power sources of the cell and are not involved in transmission of genetic information from one generation to another.

Hence, option D is incorrect.

Last Updated on Thursday, 02 July 2009 12:55
 
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