New York State Chemistry RegentsNew York State Earth Science Regents

 
Evolution-Change Over Time
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Evolution Change Over Time Question 11 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 26 June 2009 07:53

During synapsis, chromatids in homologous pairs of chromosomes often twist around each other, break, exchange segments, and rejoin. This process usually contributes to

A) The formation of polyploid offspring

B) Nondisjunction of homologous chromosomes

C) Production of identical twins

D) Increased variability in offspring

Correct Answer: Option D - Increased variability in offspring

The concept described in the question is crossing-over. It is one way that increases variety in offspring. It occurs during meiosis when the replicated homologous chromosomes are in close contact with each other during synapsis. Hence, Option D is the correct answer.

Polyploid is a heritable condition of possessing more than B complete sets of chromosomes.

Nondisjunction is the failure of chromosome pairs to separate properly during cell division.

Also synapsis does not ensure the production of identical twins.

Synapsis does not contribute to any of the outcomes of the options A, B and C. Hence, they are incorrect.

 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Evolution Change Over Time Question 12 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 26 June 2009 07:54

A child is born with an extra chromosome in each of its cells. This condition is usually the result of

A) Nondisjunction

B) Crossing-over

C) Segregation

D) Hybridization

Correct Answer: Option A – Nondisjunction

Nondisjunction is the result of the paired homologous chromosomes separating unequally during meiosis. So instead of one of a particular chromosome going to each of the D resulting sex cells, one cell gets two chromosomes of that type. Then during fertilization that zygote gets three of that particular chromosome instead of the normal two, resulting in one extra chromosome. That zygote then undergoes mitosis, resulting in all the cells of that organism containing one extra chromosome.

Crossing Over is a process occurring during meiosis wherein two chromosomes pair up and exchange segments of their genetic material.

Segregation is an act of division.

Hybridization is the process of combining different varieties or species of organisms or to create a hybrid.

Hence, options B, C and D do not contribute to an extra chromosome in a cell and these options are incorrect.

 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Evolution Change Over Time Question 13 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 26 June 2009 07:56

The first life-forms to appear on Earth were most likely

A) Complex single-celled organisms

B) Complex multicellular organisms

C) Simple single-celled organisms

D) Simple multicellular organisms

Correct Answer: Option C - Simple single-celled organisms

Single celled organisms can survive in high temperatures, extremely dry or humid climates. They could easily survive and evolve. Hence, these were the organisms which were the first life forms on earth.

Complex single-celled organisms evolved from simple single-celled organisms and they lead to the evolution of simple multicellular organisms and then the complex multicellular organisms.

Hence, options A, B and D are incorrect.

 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Evolution Change Over Time Question 14 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 26 June 2009 07:58

Which statement best explains the significance of meiosis in the process of evolution within a species?

A) The gametes produced by meiosis ensure the continuation of any particular species by asexual reproduction.

B) Equal numbers of eggs and sperm are produced by meiosis.

C) Meiosis produces eggs and sperm that are alike.

D) Meiosis provides for variation in the gametes produced by an organism

Correct Answer: Option D - Meiosis provides for variation in the gametes produced by an organism

Evolution can take place when there is variation helping adaption to the changes in the environment. And meiosis is the process which helps variation by dividing the parent cell into B daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell. Hence, Option D is the correct answer.

Gametes are involved in sexual reproduction.

Meiosis leads to the production of various egg cells in the female reproductive organ and various sperm cells in the male reproductive organ.

Hence, options A, B and C are incorrect.

 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Evolution Change Over Time Question 15 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 26 June 2009 07:59

Which statement about the rates of evolution for different species is in agreement with the theory of evolution?

A) They are identical, since the species live on the same planet.

B) They are identical, since each species is at risk of becoming extinct.

C) They are different, since each species has different adaptations that function within a changing environment.

D) They are different, since each species has access to unlimited resources within its environment.  

Correct Answer: Option C - They are different, since each species has different adaptations that function within a changing environment.

The rates of evolution, of different species are not identical and each species of animals has access to a limited number of resources available in their environment.

Hence, options A, B and D are incorrect.

 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Evolution Change Over Time Question 16 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 26 June 2009 08:00

As a result of sexual reproduction, an organism can pass a gene mutation to its offspring if the mutation occurs in

A) A body cell    

B) Liver tissue

C) A gamete        

D) White blood cells

Correct Answer: Option C - A gamete

In the process of sexual reproduction gametes are the cells which fuse to form a zygote which grows into the organism. Hence, mutations in one organism can be passed to the offspring only if it occurs in the gamete.

Mutated body cells only live in the body of that organism and cannot be transferred through sexual reproduction.

Liver tissue is not involved in sexual reproduction and mutation of this cannot be transferred to a sexually produced offspring.

White blood cells are the defenders of the body from external agents. Mutated white blood cells can protect the organism in which they exist but cannot be passed to offspring through sexual reproduction.

Hence, options A, B and D are incorrect.

 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Evolution Change Over Time Question 17 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 26 June 2009 08:01

Which concept is not a part of the theory of evolution?

A) Present-day species developed from earlier species.

B) Some species die out when environmental changes occur.

C) Complex organisms develop from simple organisms over time.

D) Change occurs according to the needs of an individual organism to survive. 

Correct Answer: Option D - Change occurs according to the needs of an individual organism to survive. 

Theory of evolution suggests that environmental factors are uncontrollable and they change with time. As the changes in the environment occur the organisms which can adapt to these changes survive and evolve. Those organisms which cannot change and adapt to the changing environment become extinct.

Hence, the above statements that present-day species developed from earlier species, that some species die out when environmental changes occur and that complex organisms develop from simple organisms is true according to the theory of evolution.

Hence, the only statement which is not true according to the theory of evolution is the Option D.

 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Evolution Change Over Time Question 18 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 26 June 2009 08:03

Even though the environment changes, a population that occupies a given  geographic area will most likely continue to be found in this area if the

A) Variations in the population decrease over time

B) Members of the population decrease in number

C) Population passes on those genes that result in favorable adaptations

D) Members of the population exceed the carrying capacity

Correct Answer: Option C - Population passes on those genes that result in favorable adaptations

Mutations in genes of populations of a given species existing in a given geographic area help them to adapt to changes and survive against all odds in the same geographic area.

Variations in populations may decrease or increase over time.

Decrease in the number of members of a population due to the change in environment leads to the shift of that population from the geographic area.

If the members of a population exceed the carrying capacity of an ecosystem they will have to move to different geographic areas for survival.

Hence, options A, B and D are incorrect.

 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Evolution Change Over Time Question 19 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 26 June 2009 08:05

According to some scientists, patterns of evolution can be best illustrated by the statement:

A) The organisms at the end of each branch of evolution can be found in the environment today.

B) Evolution involves changes that give rise to a variety of organisms, some of which continue to change through time while others die out.

C) The organisms that are living today have all evolved at the same rate and have undergone the same kinds of changes.

D) These patterns cannot be used to illustrate the evolution of extinct organisms.

Correct Answer: Option B - Evolution involves changes that give rise to a variety of organisms, some of which continue to change through time while others die out.

Study of the pattern of evolution shows that organisms at the end of each branch of evolution cannot be found in today’s environment.

It also shows that rate of evolution is different is different for different species of organisms guided by their adaptability to change.

The theory of evolution shows that, the organisms which adapt to change survive and those who do not adapt to change become extinct.

Hence, options A, C and D are incorrect.

 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Evolution Change Over Time Question 20 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 26 June 2009 08:07

One characteristic of mutations is that they usually

A) Are caused only by the events of mitosis

B) Do not occur at random

C) Result in different genetic sequences

D) Occur to meet the needs of a species

Correct Answer: Option C - Result in different genetic sequences

Mutations are changes to the nucleotide sequence of the genetic material of an organism. Mutations can be caused by copying errors in the genetic material during cell division, by exposure to ultraviolet or ionizing radiation, chemical mutagens, or viruses, or can be induced by the organism itself, by cellular processes such as hypermutation. Mutations occur randomly and do not always occur to meet the needs of a species.

Hence, Option C is the correct answer and options A, B and D are incorrect.

 
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