New York State Chemistry RegentsNew York State Earth Science Regents

 
Evolution-Change Over Time
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Evolution Change Over Time Question 1 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 26 June 2009 07:16

According to the theory of natural selection, why are some individuals more likely than others to survive and reproduce?

A) Some individuals pass on to their offspring new characteristics they have acquired during their lifetimes.

B) Some individuals are better adapted to exist in their environment than others are.

C) Some individuals do not pass on to their offspring new characteristics they have acquired during their lifetimes.

D) Some individuals tend to produce fewer offspring than others in the same environment.

Correct Answer: Option B - Some individuals pass on to their offspring new characteristics they have acquired during their lifetimes.

Natural selection is the process where heritable traits make it more likely for an organism to survive long enough to reproduce and become more common over successive generations of a population. The natural variation within a population of animals, plants, bacteria, etc. means that some individuals will survive better than others in their current environment.

The concept propagated by the theory of natural selection is that adaptation is the key for survival and evolution. Hence, Option B is the correct answer.

New characteristics acquired during the life time can be passed on to the offspring only if it has caused a genetic change in the organism. Hence, Option A is incorrect.

If individuals do not pass new characteristics to their offspring adaptation and eventually evolution cannot be achieved. Hence, Option C is incorrect.

The number of offspring of any individuals is not a decisive characteristic for the survival and evolution of an individual. Hence, Option D is incorrect.

Last Updated on Friday, 03 July 2009 07:38
 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Evolution Change Over Time Question 2 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 26 June 2009 07:28

Which statement is best supported by fossil records?

A) Many organisms that lived in the past are now extinct.

B) Species occupying the same habitat have identical environmental needs.

C) The struggle for existence between organisms results in changes in populations.

D) Structures such as leg bones and wing bones can originate from the same type of tissue found in embryos.

Correct Answer: Option A - Many organisms that lived in the past are now extinct.

Fossil records provide evidence for the type of organism existent in a period of time. The comparative study of these records with the current living species gives an update that many organisms that lived in the past are now extinct. Hence, Option A is the correct answer.

Fossil records do not provide information about the environmental needs of species in a habitat.

Changes in population can be not only lead by the struggle for existence, but also other factors such as natural calamities.

There are very few / almost negligible fossil records of embryos. Hence, the interpretation of the origination of structures such as leg bones and wing bones from the same type of tissue is not backed by fossil records.

Hence, options B, C and D are incorrect.

Last Updated on Friday, 03 July 2009 07:39
 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Evolution Change Over Time Question 3 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 26 June 2009 07:32

Which situation would most directly affect future generations naturally produced by a maple tree?

A) Ultraviolet radiation changes the DNA sequence within some leaves of the tree.

B) Ultraviolet radiation changes the DNA sequence within the gametes of some flowers of the tree.

C) An increase in temperature reduces the number of cell divisions in the roots.

D) Rapidly growing cells just under the bark are exposed to radiation, causing changes in genetic material.

Correct Answer: Option B - Ultraviolet radiation changes the DNA sequence within the gametes of some flowers of the tree.

Flowers are the source of pollination and reproduction in a Maple tree. The ultraviolet radiations can lead to changes in the DNA sequence within the flower, hence, directly affect future generations of the Maple tree.

Change in the DNA sequence of leaves will not affect the future generations of the Maple tree, since, leaves are not responsible for reproduction.

Changes in the cell division of roots will not affect future generations of Maple tree.

Cells under the bark even if affected by radiation are not responsible for reproduction and will not affect future generations of Maple tree.

Hence, options A, C and D are incorrect.

Last Updated on Friday, 03 July 2009 07:41
 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Evolution Change Over Time Question 4 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 26 June 2009 07:33

New inheritable characteristics would be least likely to result from

A) Mutations which occur in muscle cells and skin cells

B) Mutations which occur in male gametes

C) Mutations which occur in female gametes

D) Sorting and recombination of existing genes during meiosis and fertilization

Correct Answer: Option A - mutations which occur in muscle cells and skin cells

Mutations in muscle cells and skin cells if not passed on to the reproductive cells (gametes) cannot be transferred to the offspring.

Mutations in male gametes and female gametes and sorting and recombination of existing genes are most likely to transfer the new inheritable characteristics to the offspring.

Hence, options B, C and D are incorrect.

Last Updated on Friday, 03 July 2009 07:43
 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Evolution Change Over Time Question 5 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 26 June 2009 07:34

The spotted touch-me-not, a flowering plant, has seed pods that burst open when touched and forcefully eject their seeds. Such an adaptation is favorable because it

A) Aids in the dispersal of the species.

B) Attracts insects that aid in pollination.

C) Prevents germination within the seed pod.

D) Can cause genetic changes to occur.

Correct Answer: Option A – Aids in the dispersal of the species.

By forcefully ejecting its seeds, the spotted touch-me-not ensures that the seeds get scattered all over, and are hopefully carried by the wind to other appropriate locations to germinate, ensuring dispersal of species.

This mechanism of the touch-me-not plant does not attract insects and also does not prevent germination within the seed pod and does not ensure genetic changes since; there is no change in the genetic material of the seeds by this action.

Hence, options B, C and D are incorrect.

Last Updated on Friday, 03 July 2009 07:43
 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Evolution Change Over Time Question 6 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 26 June 2009 07:37

The structural similarities between the Flippers of whales and the arms of humans are used to show that the

A) Human species began life in the oceans

B) Human species and whales have a common ancestry

C) Whales are older than the human species

D) Whales evolved from the human species 

Correct Answer: Option B – Human species and whales have a common ancestry

Comparing structural similarities is called comparative anatomy. The more similar two different species body structures are, the closer the evolutionary link, and the more recently they shared a common ancestor.

These similarities do not provide evidence that human species began life in the oceans neither that, Whales are older than humans nor that Whales evolved from humans.

Hence, options A, C and D are incorrect.

Last Updated on Friday, 03 July 2009 07:46
 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Evolution Change Over Time Question 7 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 26 June 2009 07:39

The concept that species have changed over long periods of time is known as

A) Ecology

B) Embryology

C) Spontaneous generation

D) Organic evolution

Correct Answer: Option D - Organic evolution

Organic means living. Evolution means change through time. This explains the concept that species have changed over long periods of time. Hence, Option D is the correct answer.

Ecology is the study of organisms in their environment.

Embryology is the study of developing organisms.

Spontaneous generation is the theory that living things can arise from nonliving materials, and has since been disproved.

Hence, options A, B and C are incorrect.

 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Evolution Change Over Time Question 8 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 26 June 2009 07:40

Which group of organisms is believed to be among the earliest to evolve on Earth?

A) Arthropods

B) Coelenterates

C) Protozoan

D) Reptiles

Correct Answer: Option C - Protozoans

Protozoans are a group of animal-like unicellular Protists. From unicellular organisms, multicellular organisms theoretically arose. Hence, protozoans are believed to be the pioneer organisms that evolved on Earth.

Coelenterates, of which the Hydra and jellyfish belong, would be more advanced than Protozoans but more primitive than Arthropods, to which the grasshoppers belong. The reptiles are more advanced than the Arthropods.

Hence, options A, B and D are incorrect.

 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Evolution Change Over Time Question 9 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 26 June 2009 07:41

Variations within a species are most likely the result of

A) Mutations and sexual reproduction

B) Synapsis and disjunction

C) Mitosis and asexual reproduction

D) Overpopulation and recombination

Correct Answer: Option A - Mutations and sexual reproduction

Mutations increase variety in a species and sexual reproduction increases variety because of crossing over, two different parents combining genes, and because of the way the chromosomes line up at the equator during metaphase I of meiosis. Hence, Option A is the correct Answer.

Synapsis is the pairing of two homologous chromosomes that occurs during meiosis. Disjunction is the separation or moving apart of chromosomes toward opposite poles of the cell during cell division.

Mitosis is the process in which a eukaryotic cell separates the chromosomes in its cell nucleus into two identical sets in two daughter nuclei. Asexual reproduction is reproduction which does not involve fusion of gametes. Only one parent is involved in this form of reproduction.

Genetic recombination is the process by which a strand of genetic material is broken and then joined to a different DNA molecule. This can lead to variation but not overpopulation.

Since, the options B, C and D do not lead to variations within species; they are incorrect.

 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Evolution Change Over Time Question 10 PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 26 June 2009 07:43

There is a greater possibility for the evolution of a new species in organisms which reproduce by

A) Binary fission

B) Fertilization

C) Budding

D) Sporulation

Correct Answer: Option B - Fertilization

Fertilization is the union of a sperm and an egg cell, from B different organisms of the same species. Therefore, there is an increase in variety which might allow for the evolution of a new species through time. Hence, Option B is the correct answer.

Binary fission, budding, and sporulation are all types of asexual reproduction which produce only identical offspring, thus providing very limited scope for variation and eventually evolution. Hence, options A, C and D are incorrect.

 
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