New York State Chemistry RegentsNew York State Earth Science Regents

 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Ecology Question 11 PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 24 June 2009 12:12

Compared to a forest ecosystem a tea garden lacks:

A) Autotrophs

B) Heterotrophs

C) Biodiversity

D) Energy flow

Correct Answer: Option C – Biodiversity

A forest ecosystem supports variation in life forms ensuring coexistence of a variety of populations of organisms. However a Tea Garden has limitations in terms of the producers being the Tea plants thus limiting the other organisms in the food web and limiting biodiversity.

Variation in the number of autotrophs and heterotrophs, supported by a forest ecosystem is termed as biodiversity.

Energy flow is decided by the food webs existent in the ecosystems.

Hence, options A, B and D are incorrect.

 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Ecology Question 12 PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 24 June 2009 12:13

A food pyramid representing relationships in a pond community is shown below

The light energy from Sun is made available to the pond community through the activities of the organisms at which level?

A) A

B) B

C) C

D) D

Correct Answer: Option A – A – Algae

Algae use the sunlight water and other minerals to produce their own food. Water fleas feed on algae. Minnows feed on Water Fleas and Bass feed on Minnows. Hence, algae become the source of accumulating converting and transferring the light energy from the sun through the pond community.

Hence, Option A is the correct answer and options B, C and D are incorrect

 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Ecology Question 13 PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 24 June 2009 12:18

From the factors listed below which activity is not considered by ecologists during the evaluation of the impact of human activities on an ecosystem?

A) Light energy released from sun

B) Quality of atmosphere

C) Degree of Biodiversity

D) Location of power plants

Correct Answer: Option – A – Light energy released from the sun

When ecologists have to evaluate the impact of human activities on an ecosystem they take into consideration the quality of the atmosphere, degree of biodiversity and also the location of power plants to get accurate measures of the imbalance in the ecosystem, since these can be affected by human activities. However the light energy from sun being considered uncontrollable by human activity is not considered as a measure of evaluating the impact of human activities on the ecosystem.

Hence, Option A is the correct answer and options B, C and D are incorrect.

 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Ecology Question 14 PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 24 June 2009 12:19

Eating an apple provides energy for human metabolic processes. What is the original source of this energy?

A) Protein molecules stored in the apple

B) Energy made available by photosynthesis

C) Starch molecules absorbed by Apple tree

D) Minerals found in the soil

Correct Answer: - Option B - Energy made available by photosynthesis

The process of photosynthesis in plants is the source of all the energy stored in plants in the form of leafs and fruits. Hence, apple being a fruit provides energy for the human metabolic processes as a result of the activity of photosynthesis in the Apple tree. Hence, Option B is the correct answer.

Apple does not store protein molecules directly usable for human metabolic processes.

Apple tree does not directly absorb starch molecules.

Minerals found in soil cannot be directly used by human metabolic processes.

Hence, options A, C and D are incorrect.

 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Ecology Question 15 PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 24 June 2009 12:21

Once oceanic water recedes rocky islands are formed. Which form of vegetation probably appears on such a rocky surface?

A) Pioneer Trees

B) Weeds

C) Shrubs

D) Lichens

Correct Answer: Option D – Lichens

Lichen is an example of a pioneer organism, one of the first organisms to inhabit an area. Succession on land usually starts with lichens on bare rock, which will build up soil, allowing weeds to grow. The weeds soon get crowded out by the shrubs, which then get overpowered by the trees.

Hence, Option D is the correct answer and the options A, B and C are incorrect.

 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Ecology Question 17 PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 24 June 2009 12:25

Among the sequences below, select a sequence which shows a correct pathway for the flow of energy in a food chain

A) Algae – Snake – Duck – Deer

B) Fungi – Beetle – Algae – Mouse

C) Grass – Grasshopper – Frog – Snake

D) Bacteria – Grass – Fox – Owl

Correct Answer: Option C – Grass – Grasshopper – Frog – Snake

In the sequence C, grass is a producer of food / energy. Grasshopper feeds on grass. Frogs feed on Grasshopper and Snakes feed on Frogs. Hence, this represents the correct sequence of energy flow.

In Option A snake do not feed on algae hence, it is incorrect.

In Option B algae do not feed on beetle hence, it is incorrect.

In Option D grass does not feed on bacteria hence, it is incorrect.

 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Ecology Question 16 PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 24 June 2009 12:22

Decay/ Decomposition of organic matter is accomplished by the activity of:

A) Viruses and algae

B) Bacteria and Fungi

C) Green plants

D) Scavengers

Correct Answer: Option B – Bacteria and Fungi

Bacteria and fungi feed on dead organic matter and help them decompose releasing the elements like nitrogen, carbon, etc. back to the environment, which in turn are absorbed by autotrophs and the whole cycle of flow of minerals through the food web follows. Hence, Option B is the correct answer.

Algae are autotrophs which generate food and viruses carry diseases.

Green plants are producers of food and not decomposers.

Scavengers feed on dead bodies but do not decompose them.

Hence, options A, C and D are incorrect.

 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Ecology Question 18 PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 24 June 2009 12:27

What is the most likely occurrence after a natural disaster such as fire or earth quake?

A) The area will remain uninhabited for an indefinite time period

B) A stable ecosystem will be reestablished after A year

C) An ecosystem similar to the original one will eventually be reestablished if the climate is stable

D) An ecosystem of only micro-organisms will come into existence

Correct Answer: Option C - An ecosystem similar to the original one will eventually be reestablished if the climate is stable

After a natural disaster occurs a temporary imbalance in the ecosystem occurs. But, once the stability of the abiotic factors such as climate soil, etc occurs, a similar ecosystem will be reestablished. Hence, Option C is the correct answer.

Until there is availability of basic necessities for continuity of life such as oxygen, water, soil, etc, organisms will grow and the ecosystem will not remain uninhabited.

A time frame of A year is not certain for the reestablishment of a stable ecosystem after a natural disaster.

An ecosystem may be pioneered by microorganisms but, evolution will bring in larger organisms also in the cycle of the ecosystem eventually.

Hence, options A, B and D are incorrect.

 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Ecology Question 19 PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 24 June 2009 12:28

Which type of model provides the most complete representation of the feeding relationships within a community?

A) A food web

B) A material cycle

C) A predator-prey association

D) Autotroph-Heterotroph relationship

Correct Answer: Option A – Food Web

Food webs represent the feeding relationships in an ecosystem. Hence, Option A is the correct answer.

A predator-prey relationship and an autotroph-heterotroph relationship are only a part of the food web. Hence, options C and D are incorrect.

Material cycle represents the flow of elements such as carbon, nitrogen, etc; it is not directly related to the feeding relationships. Hence, Option B is incorrect.

 
Living Environment Regents Review Practice Ecology Question 20 PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 24 June 2009 12:29

One reason for the stability of an ecosystem is:

A) Majority of predators than prey

B) High level of biodiversity

C) Decreasing biotic factors

D) Decreasing finite resources

Correct Answer: Option B – High level of biodiversity

Biodiversity ensures variety in the types of organisms at various levels of the food web. This helps in maintaining a balanced feeding chain and flow of energy. Hence, a stable ecosystem is an outcome of a high biodiversity.

More predators than prey, decreasing biotic factors and decreasing finite resources lead to an imbalance in the ecosystem. Hence, options A, C and D are incorrect.

 
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