New York State Chemistry RegentsNew York State Earth Science Regents

 
Homeostasis
Living Environment Regents January 2008 Question 48 PDF Print E-mail
NYS Living Environment Regents January 2008

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•    Less urine would be produced because a large amount of water is being lost as sweat.

•    Less urine will be produced because the feedback mechanisms in the kidneys regulate water in  the  blood.

•    The runner would sweat more, decreasing water levels in the blood. This decrease would slow urine production because there is less water in the blood to be filtered.
•    Urine would be more concentrated because it would contain less water.

 
Living Environment Regents January 2008 Question 47 PDF Print E-mail
NYS Living Environment Regents January 2008

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  • Reduces loss of sodium
  • Cools the body
  • Decreases perspiration
  • Decreases water loss
  • Reduces the chances of hyponatremia

Homeostasis is the mechanism of the body to handle change and water poured on the body by runners helps them to cool down the body and reduce loss of water from the body helping the runner to reasonably maintain the balance of water in the body.

 
Living Environment Regents January 2008 Question 46 PDF Print E-mail
NYS Living Environment Regents January 2008

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Option 3 – Eat salty foods

Water, Chocolate or Canberry juice cannot increase the level of sodium in blood. Sodium is present in salt and eating salty foods is the best way to reduce symptoms of hyponatremia.

 
Living Environment Regents January 2008 Question 43 PDF Print E-mail
NYS Living Environment Regents January 2008
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  • Increased insulin results in a decrease in blood sugar levels.
  • As the CO2 level in the blood increases, the breathing rate increases.
  • When the guard cells close openings in leaves, the rate of water loss decreases.
 
Living Environment Regents January 2008 Question 22 PDF Print E-mail
NYS Living Environment Regents January 2008
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Option 4 – Boiling deactivates the enzyme responsible for converting sugar to starch.
 
Living Environment Regents January 2008 Question 12 PDF Print E-mail
NYS Living Environment Regents January 2008
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Option 2 – The gene insulin has a different sequence of molecular bases than the gene for testosterone.

Insulin is produced exclusively by pancreatic beta cells. This endocrine hormone has a compact three-dimensional structure consisting of three short helices and three invariant disulfide bridges. Its quaternary conformation can adopt a therapeutically-significant "R" or "T" state. A single molecule of insulin acts as a bivalent ligand to the insulin receptor, by way of two binding surfaces. Circulating, and biologically active, insulin is monomeric.  It is composed of two polypeptide chains: chain A has 21 amino acids and chain B has 30 amino acids (in humans).

Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. Testosterone is secreted in the testes of men and the ovaries of women. It is the principal male sex hormone. In both males and females, it plays key roles in health and well-being. Testosterone is derived from cholesterol just like other steroid hormones. The largest amounts of testosterone are produced by the testes in men, but it is also synthesized in smaller quantities in women by the theca cells of the ovaries, by the placenta.
 
Living Environment Regents June 2003 Question 68 PDF Print E-mail
NYS Living Environment Regents June 2003

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Enzymes are proteins that speed up the body's chemical reactions. They require a constant temperature to work at their optimum. Just like other proteins, the enzymes denature at extremely high temperatures.

Heat stroke is an uncontrolled increase in body temperature. Exposure to very hot temperatures produces increased sweating, and can produce dehydration, which may lead to reduced sweating and further increase of core body temperature.

Hypothermia is the condition wherein the body temperature drops faster that the body regains heat. This usually occurs when the body is at the temperature below 35 oC. When this happens, the enzymes denature. Thus, the biological processes of the organ systems will fail to work properly until they shut down. This further leads to death of the individual.

 
Living Environment Regents June 2003 Question 28 PDF Print E-mail
NYS Living Environment Regents June 2003

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Correct Answer: (4) release of insulin

Insulin is one of the antagonistic hormones that regulate the concentration of glucose in the blood. If the blood glucose level rises over 90ml/100mL in humans, the pancreas secretes insulin to trigger its target cells to take up the excess glucose from the blood.

 
Living Environment Regents June 2003 Question 06 PDF Print E-mail
NYS Living Environment Regents June 2003

lejun03q06

Correct Answer: (2) Homeostasis

Homeostasis is the maintenance of a constant environment (i.e. temperature, water levels, glucose concentrations) in the body. Example of this is vasodilation wherein the capillaries expand to bring blood closer to the surface of the skin to cope up with the increase of temperature brought about by strenuous exercise.

Synthesis, excretion, and locomotion are not the reasons why vasodilation occurs.

 
Living Environment Regents June 2004 Question 20 PDF Print E-mail
NYS Living Environment Regents June 2004

lejun04q20

Correct Answer: (2) Some specialized cells mark and other cells engulf microbes during immune reactions.

An antigen is a foreign macromolecule that does not belong to the host organism and that elicits an immune response. When an antigen is recognized by the immune system, it is marked as "harmful" and thus engulfed by the sleukocytes.

Incorrect Answers:

Antibiotics have various mechanisms of action depending on the organism/ingredient used. Most antibiotics (e.g., Penicillins, Glycopeptides) block the cell wall formation of the pathogenic bacteria.

It is true that embryonic development occurs during pregnancy, however, this is not the explanation for the illustration showed. Embryonic development is characterized by simultaneous cell divisions and differentiation.

Cloning is the process of copying the exact genetic information of an organism, thus, all cells will differentiate in the same manner, whether normal or abnormal.

 
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