New York State Chemistry RegentsNew York State Earth Science Regents

 
Heredity and Genetics
Living Environment Regents August 2008 Question 13 PDF Print E-mail
NYS Living Environment Regents August 2008

image013Correct Answer – Option 4 - enzymes

DNA replication occurs with the help of enzymes.

A Scalpel is too large to cut a DNA. Hence, option 1 is incorrect.

Electrophoresis is also not a method that can be used for cutting the DNA. Hence, option 2 is incorrect

Hormones cannot cut the DNA. Hence, option 3 is incorrect.

 
Living Environment Regents August 2008 Question 12 PDF Print E-mail
NYS Living Environment Regents August 2008

image012
Correct Answer – Option 1 – may result in the production of a defective protein

A gene mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene. Mutations range in size from a single DNA building block (DNA base) to a large segment of a chromosome.

Gene mutation in a human skin cell cannot alter the sequence of sugars in insulin, cannot decrease mutation rate in offspring and cannot alter the rate of all the metabolic processes in humans. Hence, the options 2,3 and 4 are incorrect.

 
Living Environment Regents August 2008 Question 11 PDF Print E-mail
NYS Living Environment Regents August 2008

image011
Correct Answer – Option 3

Variation in offspring's occurs due to cross over. This is quite evident in the figure shown above representing "After"

 
Living Environment Regents August 2008 Question 10 PDF Print E-mail
NYS Living Environment Regents August 2008

image010Correct Answer – Option 4 – The inserted DNA may direct the synthesis of human proteins

The human gene is inserted into a bacterial cell making it a part of the gene of the bacteria. The bacteria will not destroy itself hence cannot destroy the human gene. Hence, option 1 is incorrect.

Embryo cannot be formed by asexual reproduction, which is the mode of reproduction of bacteria. Hence, option 2 is incorrect.

The inserted human DNA does not have full control of the functioning of the cell. Hence, it cannot change the harmful bacteria to harmless one. However it may direct the synthesis of human protein. Hence, option 3 is incorrect and option 4 is the correct answer.

 
Living Environment Regents August 2008 Question 06 PDF Print E-mail
NYS Living Environment Regents August 2008

image006

Correct Answer – Option 3

Increase in temperature is does not refer to behavior of the fruit fly or intensity of light, hence, options 1 and 2 are incorrect.

Mutation is an activity taking place with respect to the cell structure and is not governed by temperature however is influenced by the environment, hence, option 3 is the most appropriate answer.

 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 66 PDF Print E-mail
NYS Living Environment Regents August 2010
image066
Gel electrophoresis is used in genetic fingerprinting, specifically in parental testing, forensic science, and the genetic diagnosis of evolutionary relationships. For example, DNA profiles of organisms can be compared to analyze possible evolutionary relationships. Those with similar DNA profiles could be closely related.
 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 65 PDF Print E-mail
NYS Living Environment Regents August 2010
image065

Children B and D have similar DNA profiles. All the bands are located at the same sites, meaning the smallest fragments of both samples have the same molecular sizes. This goes the same with the other bands.

 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 64 PDF Print E-mail
NYS Living Environment Regents August 2010
image064

Correct answer: (2) smallest fragment of DNA that traveled the fastest

Band X, which is the band farthest from the wells, represents the smallest fragment that passed through the sponge-like matrix of the gel. It is easier for the smaller molecules to move through the pores of the gel because of their sizes.

Incorrect answers:

(1) largest fragment of DNA that traveled the fastest

It will take a longer time for the largest molecules to travel through the gel because of their sizes.

(3) largest fragment of the DNA that traveled the slowest

Though it is true that the larger fragments move the slowest, it is not true that Band X represents the largest fragment. If the large fragment moves slowly, then it would be the nearest band from the well where the DNA sample was placed.

(4) smallest fragment of DNA that traveled the slowest

The smallest fragment will be the fastest to travel because of its small size, which allows them to easily pass through the pores of the gel.
 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 63 PDF Print E-mail
NYS Living Environment Regents August 2010
image063
This procedure is called gel electrophoresis. It is used to separate DNA fragments. Through an electric current, the molecules of various sizes move through the porous sponge-like gel. The small molecules move through the gel faster than the bigger ones.
 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 33 PDF Print E-mail
NYS Living Environment Regents August 2010
image033

Correct answer: (3) genetic engineering-insulin

The diagram illustrates the process of producing insulin through the recombinant DNA technology or genetic engineering. First, a plastid is taken from a bacterial cell. Using a special enzyme, the plastid is opened. DNA from human coding for the synthesis of insulin is inserted into the plasmid. The plasmid and the inserted DNA are closed using another enzyme. The recombined plasmid is then inserted to Escherichia coli, a common bacterium. E. coli divides into new cells with the same genetic makeup as the original. These newly formed cells now produce insulin.

Incorrect answer:

(1) selective-breeding-growth hormone

Selective breeding is a method used in choosing individuals for breeding. It cannot be used to produce growth hormones in bacteria.

(2) cloning-antibiotics

Cloning is the process of producing populations with the same genetic makeup. This is not used to make antibiotics. Mutation is used in the production of antibiotics.

(4) replicating-glucose

Replication occurs during cell division when each strand of the DNA becomes a template for the formation of complementary strands. This process is not used to produce glucose.
 
<< Start < Prev 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Next > End >>

Page 1 of 10

Copyright Information

All works and materials contained within this site Copyright © 2009 Technology Strategies For Success inc.

Disclaimer

We are not affiliated with, nor endorsed by, the New York State Education Department.

The information contained in this website is for general information purposes only. The information is provided by "Technology Strategies for Success" and while we strive to keep the information up-to-date and correct, we make no representations or warranties of any kind, express or implied, about the completeness, accuracy, reliability, suitability or availability with respect to the website or the information, products, services, or related graphics contained on the website for any purpose. Any reliance you place on such information is therefore strictly at your own risk.