New York State Chemistry RegentsNew York State Earth Science Regents

 
Ecology
Living Environment Regents August 2008 Question 26 PDF Print E-mail
NYS Living Environment Regents August 2008

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Correct Answer – Option 2 – environmental carrying capacity

Decreasing completion may lead to an increase in frog population. Hence, option 1 is incorrect.

Excessive dissolved oxygen will help in the growth of water borne plants, providing more food for frogs.

This should lead to an increase in frog population. Hence, option 3 is incorrect.

The depth of water is not related to the population of the frogs. Hence, option 4 is incorrect.

Hence, the only reason why the frog population in a pond remains constant would be the carrying capacity of the environment. Hence, option 2 is the correct answer.

 
Living Environment Regents August 2008 Question 25 PDF Print E-mail
NYS Living Environment Regents August 2008

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Correct Answer – Option 3 – industrialization has increased the amount of carbon dioxide in the air

Increase in carbon dioxide leads to the green house effect leading to the overall increase in temperature at Earth’s surface.

Destruction of decomposers does not cause an increase in temperature. Hence, option 1 is incorrect.

Trees consume carbon dioxide to release oxygen. Hence, deforestation will lead to an increase in the level of oxygen. So, option 2 is incorrect.

Plants – crops again consume carbon dioxide to generate oxygen. And oxygen in the atmosphere does not lead to depletion of ozone layer. Hence, option 4 is incorrect.

 
Living Environment Regents August 2008 Question 24 PDF Print E-mail
NYS Living Environment Regents August 2008

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Correct Answer – Option 1 – Human actions are a threat to equilibrium in ecosystems.

The diagram above represents modifications of ecosystem by humans through the use of technology, consumption and population growth disrupting the equilibrium in ecosystems.

Hence, the options 2,3 and 4 are incorrect.

 
Living Environment Regents August 2008 Question 03 PDF Print E-mail
NYS Living Environment Regents August 2008

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Correct Answer – Option 3 – Organisms in this food web are interdependent.

Only when organisms in a food web are interdependent the population, growth, or any character influencing one set of organisms will affect the other organisms which are interdependent.

In a food web both producers and consumers are important. Hence, option 1 is incorrect.

Both producers and consumers are needed to support the food web. Hence, option 2 is incorrect.

Due to various environmental, biotic and abiotic factors populations in a food web cannot be constant. Hence, Option 4 is incorrect.

 
Living Environment Regents August 2008 Question 02 PDF Print E-mail
NYS Living Environment Regents August 2008

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Correct Answer – Option 2 – Temperature and amount of available water

Abiotic components are the nonliving components of an ecosystem. Chemical and geological factors, such as rocks and minerals, physical factors such as temperature and weather are referred to as abiotic factors.

Biodiversity is not a nonliving factor hence option 1 is incorrect.

Producers and decomposers in a forest ecosystem are living organisms. Hence, option 3 is incorrect.

Heterotrophs are living or biotic components of the forest ecosystem. Hence, option 4 is incorrect

 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 62 PDF Print E-mail
NYS Living Environment Regents August 2010
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Animals in the abyssal zone cannot survive the upper ocean zones due to the difference in water pressure. Their bodies are not be able to tolerate the low pressure of the upper ocean zones. Some deep-sea animals have collapsed lungs to make their body heavier than water, which makes sinking deeper easier. Some fishes located in the abyssal zone have developed lung-like swim bladders to manage their buoyancy. When they move up the water column, they secrete gas into the bladder by inflating it (What is "it'?). They move down by reabsorbing gas into their blood. The bladder does not collapse at depth because the pressure of the gas inside the bladder is equal to the pressure outside it. Thus, when the external pressure suddenly drops, the bladder will swell terribly.


 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 61 PDF Print E-mail
NYS Living Environment Regents August 2010
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These animals are capable of bioluminescence, which is the emission of light through the transformation of chemical energy into light energy with the help of the enzyme luciferase. Marine organisms can use light in predation. For instance, the carnivorous fish known as the deep-sea angler has luminous bait sprouting from the middle of the head and suspended near its mouth to attract prey. On the other hand, there are also other bioluminescent organisms that emit light which they use for courtship and mating, like some marine crustaceans.
 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 60 PDF Print E-mail
NYS Living Environment Regents August 2010
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Since light cannot penetrate up to this depth, life is still possible in this area where a fairly diverse community of invertebrates and fishes are present. These communities are located at spreading centers of the seafloor, where hot magma superheats the water. A number of species of bacteria are located near the vents which serve as the producers in these communities. They are chemoautotrophic, obtaining energy by oxidizing hydrogen sulfide (H2S) which is formed by the reaction of hot water and dissolved sulfate (SO4-2). These bacteria are consumed by giant polychaete worms, arthropods, echinoderms, and fishes.
 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 59 PDF Print E-mail
NYS Living Environment Regents August 2010
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Problem: increased ultraviolet radiation

This can be caused by the accumulation of chlorofluorocarbons, chemicals used for refrigeration, as propellants in aerosol cans, and in certain manufacturing services. When the breakdown products from the said chemicals reach the stratosphere, chlorine reacts with ozone, reducing it to molecular oxygen. The following reactions free up the chlorine, allowing it to react with other ozone molecules in catalytic chain reaction. The ozone located in the stratosphere absorbs the UV radiation, thus preventing much of it from contracting organisms.

Humans can be severely affected by the increased ultraviolet radiation. It can increase lethal and nonlethal types of skin cancer and cataracts.

One of the initiatives that have been taken by governments is the banning of the use of chlorofluorocarbons to lessen the impact of this problem.

Problem: global warming

Global warming is caused by carbon dioxide emissions and the greenhouse effect. When carbon dioxide accumulates in the atmosphere, much of the solar radiation that strikes the planet is reflected back towards the space. Since carbon dioxide and water vapor in the atmosphere absorb the infrared radiation, light is rereflected back to the earth. Thus, solar heat is retained contributing to the warming of the earth's temperature.

The rate of global warming has dramatically increased over the years. This contributed to the melting of glaciers in the temperate areas of the earth. Thus, glacial animals, such as the deer mouse, beaver and bald eagle, are threatened by global warming.

One of the ways to prevent or delay global warming is to decrease the use of organic fuels like coal, natural gas, gasoline, and wood. In 1992, leaders of the industrialized countries have signed a treaty that provides a framework for stabilizing carbon dioxide emissions.

 
Living Environment Regents August 2010 Question 55 PDF Print E-mail
NYS Living Environment Regents August 2010
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Based on the given data, it is favorable for the bright-colored trout to inhabit clear waters, as manifested by higher number of bright-colored trout when the water is clear. On the other hand, drab-colored trout were plenty when the water is cloudy. Trout feed on smaller fishes. The smaller fishes will not notice their predator when the color of the trout is similar to the surrounding. When the water is clear, it is more advantageous for the brightly-colored trout to survive because their color mimics the surrounding, which is full of colored stones. Thus, it is easier for them to catch their prey. When the water is cloudy, the drab-colored trout would not be noticed by their prey so they could feed more during this condition.
 
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